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Do cold blooded animals generate any heat?

Do cold blooded animals generate any heat?


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In explaining energy and work to an 8 year-old I said that all conversion of energy generates heat as a by-product. For example, cars generate heat in their engines and running generates heat in our bodies. Then the 8 year-old said, except for cold-blooded animals.

So my question is, do cold-blooded animals generate any heat in their conversion of stored energy (food, fat, etc) into motion? If they generate heat, why are they cold-blooded?


They do generate heat. They just do not SPEND energy specifically on heating their bodies by raising their metabolisms. This is a form of energy conservation. The metabolic rate they need to live is not nearly enough to heat their bodies.

An example of spending energy to heat the body is seen in humans shivering. Here muscle is activated not for its usual purpose, but to function as a furnace. "Warm-blooded" and "cold-blooded" is somewhat a misnomer. The correct way to think of it is…

Endotherm or ectotherm. Does the heat primarily come from within (endo) or from the surroundings (ecto). Endothermic animals include mammals. Most of their body heat is generated by their own metabolisms. Ectothermic animals include reptiles and insects. They absorb most of their body heat from the surroundings. This is not the same as saying they let their body temperature fluctuate with their surroundings, some avoid this by moving around to accomodate themselves.

Homeotherm or poikilotherm. Homeotherms want to maintain homeostasis for their body temperatures. They don't want it to change. Poikilotherms do not exhibit this behaviour, instead their body temperatures vary greatly with the environment.

We can have endotherm poikilotherms, such as squirrels, who let their body temperature drop while hibernating. Endotherm homeotherms, such as humans, where temperature is constant by means of complex thermoregulation. Ectotherm homeotherms, such as snakes (moving into shadow or into the sun to regulate temperature), and ectotherm poikilotherms, such as maggots.


As the others have said, animals and insects (and even plants) generate heat through metabolism and can regulate their temperature this way.

Just wanted to add a third point that mammals have developed brown fat, fat tissue which is dark with extra mitochondria which burn energy to generate heat. These are rich with uncoupling protein (a particular uncoupling protein called thermogenin) which passes protons through the mitochondrial membrane to generate heat rather than generate ATP.

Most of the heat generated by mammals is not from brown adipose tissue, but it is a particular adaptation to generate heat that endotherms have evolved. The brain alone is responsible for 16% of the heat generated by human bodies.


I'm fairly certain that you were right in your initial hunch that heat is almost always a byproduct of metabolism (which is never 100% efficient). The difference between endothermic ('warm-blooded') and ectothermic ('cold-blooded') organisms is just where the primary source of body temperature regulation comes from (either from metabolic reactions in endotherms or from the environment in ectotherms).


Nature News: Do ducks and gulls get cold feet in winter?

During our last bout of super-cold weather, a gull flew by my classroom window. These are great windows. Six huge, multi-paned windows that span the back wall of my fourth floor classroom. So, a herring gull flew by and one of the students, distracted in the middle of an exam, wondered how it managed to stay here all winter. Why didn’t it fly south? How did it manage to stay warm? Since we were in the middle of midterm exams I couldn’t start excitedly expounding on this subject, but can’t wait until classes resume this week to bring this up. Temperature regulation in animals is one of my favorite topics.

There are two great vocabulary words concerning how animals regulate their temperature: Endotherms (warm-blooded animals) generate their own heat – these are usually mammals and birds. Ectotherms (cold-blooded animals) don’t generate their own heat, so, when they need to regulate their internal temperature they use outside sources (like the sun). Reptiles, amphibians, fish and insects are usually ectotherms.

These aren’t black and white categories - this is biology so there are many shades of gray. For example, when a bumble bee wants to warm up in the morning it will do so by vibrating its flight muscles (that’s actually what makes the buzzing noise bees make – not the beating of their wings as most people think) to generate heat. So even though they are ectotherms, technically, they are being endothermic when they do this.

This time of year you won’t see any ectotherms out and about, and many endotherms travel south to escape the cold because it takes an enormous amount of energy (food) to maintain a constant internal temperature in freezing conditions. Why is body heat necessary? Primarily for enzyme function. Enzymes regulate everything in our bodies and most enzymes are made to operate best at specific temperatures – if it gets too hot or too cold, they don’t work as well. So, animals that remain here year-round have a variety of adaptations that help them retain body heat - thick fur, feathers, extra body fat and the like.

My curious student was particularly perplexed by the gull’s legs. The gull’s feathers do a great job insulating their bodies, they are the perfect winter jacket - waterproof outer feathers, fluffly inner feathers that trap air next to the body. But what about their legs? They are thin and spindly, no extra fat, no feathers, nothing between them and the cold. I was watching ducks hang out on some ice in the harbor and wondered the same thing. Do they feel cold like we do? Why don’t they get frostbite? Are they miserable?

Humans get frostbite when cold conditions cause reduced blood flow (because our bodies are trying to maintain a constant core temperature) to our extremities. Our fingers and toes don’t get the warmth and nutrients they need from the blood and die. Ducks and gulls avoid this through something called countercurrent heat exchange. As warm arterial blood is pumped from the heart and circulates out into the legs, it passes by cool venous blood which is returning back to the heart. The cold venous blood is warmed by the arterial blood (because heat always flows from warm to cold) in turn, the warm arterial blood is cooled by the venous blood. By the time the arterial blood reaches the feet, it won’t lose much heat to the surroundings and the returning venous blood won’t cool the core too much because it has already been warmed.

Those ducks and gulls you see standing around on ice have cold feet. They’re generally just above freezing. This helps the bird stay warm because heat flow is generally proportional to the temperature difference, so very little heat is lost from those feet (typically only 5 percent of heat is lost through the feet). And, unlike our fingers, the tissues in their feet are adapted to function at close to freezing temperatures.

My final question: Are they suffering from the cold as they stand around on ice? I don’t know. We feel discomfort when we are outside our range of tolerance — pain is what makes us recoil, pull our hand out of icy water or away from a hot stove. Since local gulls and ducks are built for freezing conditions, my guess would be that they are fairly comfortable out there on the ice. I personally would love a pair of boots that did the job of those bird’s feet.


How do Endotherms generate heat?

Click to read in-depth answer. Simply so, how do Endotherms stay warm?

Sweat glands help keep endotherms cool. When an endotherm gets hot, the sweat evaporates and cools the animal's skin. Fur and feathers are another adaptation to regulate body temperature. These specialized skin coverings help the animals stay warm.

Additionally, how do warm blooded animals generate heat? To generate heat, warm-blooded animals convert the food that they eat into energy. These thermal infrared images of warm-blooded animals, show how birds and mammals maintain body temperatures well above the surrounding, cooler air temperature. Cold-blooded creatures take on the temperature of their surroundings.

Subsequently, one may also ask, how does the body generate heat?

Answer: Every cell in the body produces heat as they burn up energy. Some organs will be on more than others, such as the brain, or muscles if you are exercising, therefore they get hotter. This needs to be spread around the body and this is done by the blood, which heats some organs and cools others.

Answer and Explanation: Humans are endothermic, which means that they are warm-blooded. Endothermic organisms are able to generate their own body heat through many different


ELI5: Why are some animals able to generate body heat but not all?

It sounds like you are asking about cold blooded vs. warm blooded animals. Am I correct?

Cold blooded animals aren't literally cold all the time. They are whatever temperature their surroundings are, so they spend a lot of time basking to raise their temperature, giving them the ability to move around in colder areas such as under a shady tree. Friction from moving around and metabolic processes do create some heat, but this doesn't make a noticeable difference unless we are talking giant tortoises or something.

Warm blooded animals have metabolic processes that specifically generate heat that they do much more than cold blooded animals, so if they are in a cold area, their body will not gradually cool down to near ambient temperature.

The reason there are these two different approaches is that evolution is all about tradeoffs. Cold blooded organisms don't need nearly as much food, because they aren't using their own food energy to generate heat. But warm blooded organisms can tolerate much colder temperatures because they make their own heat, despite needing more food to generate that heat.


Thermoregulation

All organisms operate at a certain range of temperatures that are best for the activity of cellular enzymes. It is important to remember that all living cells require these molecules for reactions to occur.

Enzymes are proteins which means that they are sensitive to temperature and their structure is destroyed if conditions become too cold or too hot.

Without enzymes, reactions cannot occur and ultimately cells will die. This is why the mechanisms of controlling temperature are essential to life. Such thermoregulatory processes vary depending on the type of organism.

Cold-blooded animals are known as ectotherms. They cannot generate internal body heat and rely instead on changes in their behavior in the environment for controlling their temperature.

A snake or lizard, for instance, will move out onto a warm surface to gain heat. When it is hot they move to where there is shade. These reptiles are also able to slow their metabolism and hibernate during the cold times of the year.

Warm-blooded animals are endotherms and include the birds and mammals. These animals generate internal heat and rely on homeostatic mechanisms for thermoregulation.

Some mammals can also cool down by panting in which water evaporates from the tongue. Birds also pant to allow heat to dissipate. In these animals, the panting process is called gular flutter.

Humans have physiological mechanisms to control their internal temperature, but also change behavior when conditions change. When it is hot we wear fewer clothes and stay in the shade and when it is cold we tend to wear more clothes and move more to generate heat.

Humans

Humans generate a great deal of heat, especially during exercise due to increased metabolism. Muscle activity and increased cellular respiration produce heat.

There are a few ways we can cool down and ensure that our bodies do not overheat. People may also produce too much heat when they are ill, which can have serious consequences.

One way that we do keep cool when exercising, is by perspiration, in which our nervous system triggers the secretion of sweat from the sweat glands.

These glands are found in the skin and they secrete sweat out on to the surface of the body. When this evaporates it acts to lower the body temperature. The substance contains some salt as well as water, so if you sweat too much your salt levels may drop dangerously.

Humans have a very low range of temperatures that they can survive. In fact, our body temperature cannot deviate by more than 3.5 degrees either side of 37 o C, without possible damage occurring.

Blood vessels

Hyperthermia is the condition when the body temperature rises too high. This can cause dangerous heat exhaustion and heat stroke. When temperatures are high our bodies respond physiologically to try to avoid overheating from occurring.

The smallest arteries, called arterioles, vasodilate which allows more blood to enter the capillaries. This has the effect of blood rushing to the surface of the skin, which helps cool the body.

This is also why a person will appear red when very hot and when exercising. Various factors can cause vasodilation including certain autonomic nerves and hormones.

Hypothermia is when the body temperature becomes too low. A person can end up with frostbite and may even die from extreme cold. One way to warm up is to shiver, and once again the blood vessel diameter changes.

The opposite effect now happens when it is very cold, with arterioles becoming narrower. This is vasoconstriction that acts to reduce blood flow to the surface of the skin and shunt blood to the major organs of the body. The skin thus now appears paler and this also explains why people get frostbite on their fingers and toes first.

It is obviously more important to keep the heart, brain and other internal organs warm enough to function, so this is why the blood is shifted and concentrated to these structures in very cold conditions. This is a survival strategy since you can live without fingers and toes but not without your internal organs.


Understanding Temperature: Cold-Blooded versus Warm-Blooded Animals

Editor’s note: Physicians have a special place among the thinkers who have elaborated the argument for intelligent design. Perhaps that’s because, more than evolutionary biologists, they are familiar with the challenges of maintaining a functioning complex system, the human body. With that in mind, Evolution News is delighted to offer this series, “The Designed Body.” For the complete series, see here. Dr. Glicksman practices palliative medicine for a hospice organization.

Among the other dynamics of nature, the body must contend with heat (the transfer of energy from one object to another) and temperature (the random motion within an object or its internal energy). The body’s core temperature is directly related to how much heat it produces through metabolism, the sum total of all of its chemical reactions. The human cell is able to harness only about one-quarter of the energy released from the breakdown of complex molecules like carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The remaining three-quarters is released as heat into the body. As with any working machine, the more active the body, the more heat it releases.

In addition to the heat released by its metabolism, the body’s core temperature is also directly related to how much heat it loses to, or gains from, its environment. Sit directly in the sun on a tropical island and your body will quickly gain a lot of heat. Go out at night on the frozen tundra wearing just a T-shirt and jeans and your body will quickly lose a lot of heat. The body must take control of its core temperature because if it isn’t just right, it can adversely affect enzyme function and the integrity of the plasma membrane and other cellular structures.

In my last few articles, I’ve shown that the body’s normal core temperature is set by the hypothalamus at 97 o – 99 o F (36 o -37 o C). Studies indicate that this temperature range is the one in which the enzyme systems of the body work best. Thyroid function contributes to the core temperature by setting the basal metabolic rate (BMR), which is how much heat the body generates at complete rest. But life is a dynamic process where to survive the body must stay active, releasing more heat while living within an environment where temperatures fluctuate. The hypothalamus receives data from the central thermoreceptors and keeps the core temperature at its set-point by using both voluntary means (shedding or donning clothing) and involuntary means (shivering or sweating).

These irreducibly complex systems use their natural survival capacity to keep the core temperature right where it should be so the enzyme systems within the cells can work at peak efficiency. Clinical experience teaches that if our earliest ancestors could not have kept their core temperature within the normal range they never could have survived long enough to reproduce. Since humans, like other mammals and birds, can control and keep their core temperature relatively high through internal processes, scientists consider them warm-blooded. In contrast, the core temperature of most insects, amphibians, reptiles and fish is dependent on their surroundings and so they are considered cold-blooded. This article will look at what it means to be cold-blooded and warm-blooded and what might be required for one to develop into the other as evolutionary biologists claim.

Humans, like birds and most mammals, are able to regulate their core temperature at a level that is usually above their surroundings, and sometimes lower than it as well. They accomplish this through increasing their cellular respiration and releasing more heat from their metabolism, altering blood flow in the skin, sweating, panting, shivering, and releasing heat by breaking down fat. In this way they are able to control their core temperature from within. They are therefore called endotherms (endo = within + therm = heat). Since they can keep their core temperature relatively stable, they are also known as homeotherms (homeo = same). The increased need for energy to accomplish this type of thermoregulation requires a high resting metabolic rate, so these organisms have a tachymetabolism (tachy = fast + metabol = to change). In general, birds and mammals are endotherms and homeotherms with a tachymetabolism and are called warm-blooded.

Most insects, reptiles, fish, and amphibians, are not able to maintain a regular core temperature from within, and are therefore more dependent on the temperature of their surroundings. They are therefore called ectotherms (ecto = outside + therm = heat). Since their core temperature is quite variable, they are also known as poikilotherms (poikilo = varied). In order to live within these temperature guidelines, these creatures do not need to provide themselves with as much heat energy as those that are warm-blooded. These creatures tend to have a lower resting metabolic rate or bradymetabolism (brady = slow). In general, insects, reptiles, fish, and amphibians are ectotherms and poikilotherms with a bradymetabolism and are called cold-blooded.

There are advantages and disadvantages to being either cold-blooded or warm-blooded. In particular, since the efficiency of chemical reactions in the cell is dependent on the core temperature, being warm-blooded allows for more activity in colder environments. Warm-blooded animals are, in general, able to forage for food faster and defend themselves better in a wider temperature range than cold-blooded animals. Additionally, warm-blooded animals can support highly-complex energy-dependent organs like the mammalian brain.

However, to maintain a core temperature that is often far higher than its environment, warm-blooded animals must use more of the energy they obtain from food as heat. This means that warm-blooded animals require much more food (often about five to ten times more) than cold-blooded animals to survive. Compared to cold-blooded animals, warm-blooded ones are nature’s equivalent to the gas-guzzling and energy-inefficient automobile, since they use so much energy to maintain their core temperature to keep their organ systems working properly. Cold-blooded ones are eco-friendly, energy efficient, and more in tune with their environment because they don’t need to use up as much fuel to keep their organ systems working properly.

Conventional scientific wisdom says that warm-blooded animals evolved from cold-blooded ones. Little else is said about how this evolutionary development could have taken place or what viable transitions between these two steps would look like. Converting a cold-blooded animal into a warm-blooded animal would be like converting a Model-T Ford into a Lexus. Instead of cranking the engine to start, sitting in a drafty vehicle, and moving in a herky-jerky motion from shifting gears, the modern driver electronically starts the engine from a distance, sits comfortably in a climate-controlled airtight vehicle, and enjoys smooth acceleration from the automatic transmission.

An Exercise in Critical Thinking

The more you understand what it takes for life to survive within the laws of nature, the more you realize how inadequate and simplistic the theories of evolutionary biologists are. Imagine an exercise in critical thinking: Given the facts of current biology, determine the challenges that face evolutionary biologists in explaining how cold-blooded animals evolved into warm-blooded ones. Consider these three questions and responses for the exercise.

(1) Whether cold or warm-blooded, all life forms, even bacteria and amoebae, have some sort of thermoregulatory mechanism. Since temperature is one of many physiological parameters that must be controlled to maintain life, shouldn’t evolutionary biologists have to describe each of these thermoregulatory mechanisms and how they became more sophisticated?

Each of these thermoregulatory mechanisms requires that the organism sense the change in temperature, decide what needs to be done, and then effect an adequate change in function to correct the situation. For example, when the core temperature of warm-blooded animals drops below the set-point, they can automatically increase their production of heat while at the same time limiting heat loss. Most cold-blooded animals, on the other hand, can only get warmer by lying out in the sun. How could such an irreducibly complex system have evolved while remaining functional and allowing for survival?

(2) One of the main differences between warm-blooded and cold-blooded organisms is that the former can generate more heat from their metabolism than the latter. It is important to note that when cold-blooded animals increase their level of activity, they give off more heat just like warm-blooded ones do. The key difference between them is that, in general, whether at complete rest or with activity, warm-blooded animals tend to give off more heat than cold-blooded ones. Wouldn’t you think that in trying to show how cold-blooded animals evolved into warm-blooded ones, evolutionary biologists would first need to explain the mechanism behind this phenomenon and the changes that must have taken place along the way?

In fact, it appears that not only do the cells of cold-blooded organisms have fewer mitochondria and so release less heat through cellular respiration, but the process of cellular respiration seems to be different as well. In the last few decades, scientists have shown that there are uncoupling proteins (UCPs)within the cells of most organisms, which, particularly in warm-blooded ones, seem to reduce the amount of energy their cells store as ATP and cause the release of more heat. Although thyroid activity is present in most invertebrates and vertebrates, it would appear that one of its unique functions in warm-blooded animals is to activate these UCPs and increase the production of heat. The production and control of thyroid hormone is irreducibly complex and requires natural survival capacity because having too little or too much of it is incredibly harmful. This is a second very important point that should be addressed by evolutionary biologists before claiming to understand how cold-blooded animals evolved into warm-blooded ones.

(3) If, to keep the enzyme systems that make up the metabolism in their cells working at peak efficiency, warm-blooded animals must maintain their core temperature within a certain range to survive, how do cold-blooded animals stay alive at these lower temperatures? In other words, before claiming to know how cold-blooded animals evolved into warm-blooded ones, don’t you think evolutionary biologists should address this other obvious difference in basic cellular function?

It appears that, when it comes to very important metabolic reactions, most cold-blooded animals have several different enzyme systems in place that are able to work at different temperatures to allow for survival. This means that, in general, when it comes to the genes that code for important metabolic processes, the cells of cold-blooded organisms usually have more than warm-blooded ones. This would mean that while cold-blooded animals were evolving into warm-blooded ones they would have been removing the genes for these various important metabolic processes at each step along the way. How the intermediate organisms could have survived during this transition — involving a loss of metabolic flexibility and the development of increased heat production along with thermoregulatory control — is another conundrum that evolutionary biologists need to address.

As biologist Ann Gauger has pointedly noted here at Evolution News, “Evolutionary biology’s explanatory power is inversely proportional to its rigor.” I maintain that if thoughtful adults were educated not just about how life looks, but how it works to survive within the laws of nature, views about evolution would look very different from how they do today.


Some Scientists Divide Animals Into "Metatherians" and "Eutherians"

Although the precise classification of mammals is still a subject of dispute, it's obvious that marsupials (mammals that incubate their young in pouches) are different from placentals (mammals that incubate their young entirely in the womb). One way to account for this split is to divide mammals into two evolutionary clades: Eutherians ("true beasts") which include all placental mammals, and Metatherians ("above the beasts") which diverged from Eutherians sometime during the Mesozoic Era and includes all living marsupials.


Temperature Control Mechanisms

Warm blooded animals exhibit natural control mechanisms to keep their body temperature constant. However, cold blooded animals lack these mechanisms and, therefore, their temperature changes according to the temperature of their environment.

The natural temperature control mechanisms used by various warm blooded animals are listed below.

Sweating

Mammals are a type of warm blooded animals which produce sweat in order to keep their body cool in warm environments. As the sweat evaporates from the surface of the body, a cooling effect is produced.

Presence of Hair or Fur

Many warm blooded organisms possess hair or thick fur on the surface of their body. It helps them stay warm in cold environments. Air trapped between the hair or fur acts as an insulator which prevents body heat from escaping.

Shivering

The act of shivering produces heat which helps in maintaining a constant body temperature in cold surroundings. Shivering consists of muscle movements which lead to the generation of heat in the body.

Migration

Certain warm blooded creatures, such as birds, migrate to warmer environments when the weather turns chilly. This is also a natural way of preventing changes in the body temperature. On the other hand, migrating to cooler regions helps in surviving during hot surrounding temperatures. Certain organisms instinctively move towards shade or other cooler regions in order to beat the heat.

None of the above mentioned temperature control mechanisms are exhibited by any cold blooded animal.

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Student Research Spotlight - Brandon Gominho

This is the 4th of thirteen short news articles written by students, during the professional development class, about each other's research.

Hawk Moths are Hot Moths
By Hillary Morin

A large hawk moth (Manduca sexta) flies through a cool summer night, searching for flowers to feed on. She finds the one she is looking for, and begins to hover and feed. As her long tongue dips into the flower, anyone witnessing this moment could mistake the moth for a hummingbird. Intriguingly, this ability to feed like a hummingbird is not the only similarity between the moth and the bird. Brandon Gominho, a master's student at Penn State University in the Entomology Department is investigating how this moth also maintains its body temperature like a bird.

"Because it is a nocturnal moth, it cannot rely on the sun for body heat, like most other moths. Instead of using the sun for heat, Manduca sexta can vibrate its flight muscles really fast to create heat," explains Brandon. Hawk moths are capable of heating their own muscles from 72 degrees Fahrenheit all the way up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. That is some serious heat!

Animals generate and maintain heat in different ways. Mammals (such as humans and elephants) and birds are called "warm blooded" reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects are called "cold-blooded." "Warm-blooded" animals (homeotherms) regulate heat inside their bodies, much like a thermostat changes heat within a house to keep it warm. Contrastingly, "cold-blooded" animals (ectotherms) rely on things outside their body, like the sun, to change their bodies temperature.

While most insects are "cold-blooded", hawk moths are an exception to this rule. Not only can these insects generate their own body heat, they are capable of withstanding enormous changes in heat without any injury to their bodies. "As humans, our internal body temperature is held at an optimal 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. If our internal temperature changes even 5 degrees Fahrenheit, we would be in serious danger of death due to overheating, yet the hawk moth is able to increase its internal temperature up by 35 degrees Fahrenheit every time it flies," Brandon notes. That is seven times the amount of change that the human body is able to handle. Understanding how the moth's flight muscles function at high temperatures can help us understand how our own muscles react during fever, exercise, and inflammation.

Brandon couples thermal videography with a variety of molecular techniques to study the relationship between body temperature and muscular structure. Brandon hopes to discover exactly how the moths are capable of heating up their muscles quickly, and how they are able to do this without being injured by the rapid change in temperature. Hovering over flowers in the dark of the night, this magnificent moth may help us understand our own bodies!


Characteristics and behavior

In general, the smallest poikilotherms are adjusted to the ambient temperature, but there are some of them that can limit the extreme temperatures from the thermal behavior, and it is then that they modulate the short-term influence of the temperature variability.

Recently some scientists have found that daily fluctuations in the prevailing temperature alter the sensitivity of species to warming caused by climate change, through a decrease in thermal safety margins.

Advantages and disadvantages

While endothermic animals generate heat from the energy contained in food, ectotherms do not have to feed each day and may even be able to be months without feeding.

This provides them with an advantage, which is counteracted by the fact that they can not inhabit environments with extreme temperatures , because they are highly dependent on environmental changes: endotherms, on the other hand, can live in colder or warmer habitats.

Adjustments of poikilotherms

As in ectotherms, temperature regulation depends on the ability to regulate the exchange of heat with the environment, it is common that some should be produced for thermoregulation. These are divided into two groups:

  • The behavioral adjustments are behavioral changes in the environment looking for areas where the temperature is favorable to activities. There are some species that are called euthermic, which can live within fairly wide ranges of body temperature.
  • The physiological adjustments are those that modify the metabolic rhythms to the prevailing temperature, in such a way that the intensity of the metabolism does not change. This type of animals compensates for the temperature that allows them to have the same level of activity in environments of different climates: they resemble endotherms, directly regulating their metabolism regardless of body temperature.

Exceptions

There are some cases of animals that are not ectotherms, but that have similar behaviors.


Watch the video: Φυσική Α Γυμνασίου. ΦΥΛΛΟ 5ο - Από τη θερμότητα στη θερμοκρασία Η θερμική ισορροπία (July 2022).


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