Information

19.1: Case Study: Waste Management - Biology


Case Study: Drink and Flush

“Wow, this line for the restroom is long!” Bintou says to Maeva, anxiously bobbing from side to side to ease the pressure in her bladder. Maeva nods and says, “It’s always like this at parties. It’s the alcohol.”

Bintou and Maeva are 21-year-old college students at a party. They and many other people have been drinking alcoholic beverages over the course of the evening. As the night has gotten later, the line for the restroom has gotten longer and longer. You may have noticed this phenomenon if you have been to places where large numbers of people are drinking alcohol, like at the ballpark below.

Bintou says, “I wonder why alcohol makes you have to pee?” Maeva learned about this in her Human Biology class and tells Bintou that alcohol inhibits a hormone that helps you retain water. So instead of your body retaining water, you urinate more out. This could lead to dehydration, so she suggests that after their trip to the restroom, they start drinking water instead of alcohol.

For people who drink occasionally or moderately, this effect of alcohol on the excretory system—the system that removes wastes such as urine—is usually temporary. However, in people who drink excessively, alcohol can have serious, long-term effects on the excretory system. For example, heavy drinking on a regular basis can cause liver and kidney disease.

As you will learn in this chapter, the liver and kidneys are important organs of the excretory system, and impairment of the functioning of these organs can cause serious health consequences. At the end of the chapter, you will learn which hormone Maeva was referring to, and some of the ways alcohol can affect the excretory system, both after the occasional drink and in cases of excessive alcohol use and abuse.

Chapter Overview: Excretory System

In this chapter, you will learn about the excretory system, which rids the body of toxic waste products and helps maintain homeostasis. Specifically, you will learn about:

  • The organs of the excretory system, which include the skin, liver, large intestine, lungs, and kidneys, eliminate waste and excess water from the body.
  • How wastes are eliminated through sweat, feces, urine, and exhaled gases; and how toxic substances in the blood are broken down by the liver.
  • The urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
  • The main function of the urinary system, which is to filter the blood and eliminate wastes, mineral ions, and excess water from the body in the form of urine.
  • How the kidneys filter the blood, retain needed substances, produce urine, and help maintain homeostasis, such as proper ion and water balance.
  • How urine is stored, transported, and released from the body.
  • Disorders of the urinary system, including bladder infections, kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease, urinary incontinence, and kidney damage due to factors such as uncontrolled diabetes and high blood pressure.

As you read the chapter, think about the following questions:

  1. Which hormone do you think Maeva was referring to? Remember that this hormone causes the urinary system to retain water and excrete less water out in the urine.
  2. How and where does this hormone work?
  3. Long-term, excessive use of alcohol can affect the liver and kidneys. How do these two organs of excretion interact and work together?

Increased plastic pollution due to COVID-19 pandemic: Challenges and recommendations

Plastics have become a severe transboundary threat to natural ecosystems and human health, with studies predicting a twofold increase in the number of plastic debris (including micro and nano-sized plastics) by 2030. However, such predictions will likely be aggravated by the excessive use and consumption of single-use plastics (including personal protective equipment such as masks and gloves) due to COVID-19 pandemic. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on the effects of COVID-19 on macroplastic pollution and its potential implications on the environment and human health considering short- and long-term scenarios addressing the main challenges and discussing potential strategies to overcome them. It emphasises that future measures, involved in an emergent health crisis or not, should reflect a balance between public health and environmental safety as they are both undoubtedly connected. Although the use and consumption of plastics significantly improved our quality of life, it is crucial to shift towards sustainable alternatives, such as bio-based plastics. Plastics should remain in the top of the political agenda in Europe and across the world, not only to minimise plastic leakage and pollution, but to promote sustainable growth and to stimulate both green and blue- economies. Discussions on this topic, particularly considering the excessive use of plastic, should start soon with the involvement of the scientific community, plastic producers and politicians in order to be prepared for the near future.


About the authors
List of Contributors
Preface

1 Setting the Scene
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The Evolution of the Current Organisational Arrangements in the UK
1.3 A European Perspective on Nuclear Power Generation
1.4 An International Perspective on Radioactive Waste Management
1.4.1 Introduction
1.4.2 General Nuclear Waste Classifications
1.4.3 Nuclear Waste Disposal Concepts
1.4.4 Management and Funding Arrangements
1.4.5 Multinational Radioactive Waste Facilities
1.5 International Regulation & Collaboration
1.5.1 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
1.5.2 The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
1.5.3 The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA)
1.5.4 The European Commission
1.6 The Kyoto Protocol and OSPAR (Oslo Paris Convention)
1.6.1 The Kyoto Protocol
1.6.2 OSPAR (Oslo/Paris) Convention
1.7 Waste Production
1.8 Acronyms and Abbreviations

2 Ionising Radiation and the Protection of Man
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Historical Background
2.3 Basic Concepts and Units
2.4 Biological Aspects of Radiological Protection
2.5 Conceptual Framework for Radiation Protection
2.6 The Control of Occupational Exposure
2.7 The Control of Medical Exposure
2.8 The Control of Public Exposure
2.9 Potential Exposures
2.10 Intervention
2.11 Practical Advice on Radiation Protection Implementation
2.12 The Role of NRPB
2.13 Practical Advice on Principles for Solid Radioactive Waste Disposal
2.14 Exemption of Sources from Regulatory Controls
2.15 Chronic Exposures

3 Decommissioning - Introduction and Overview
3.1 Definition and Scope
3.2 The Stages of Decommissioning
3.3 Drivers for Determining Decommissioning Plans and Programmes
3.4 Risk verses Hazard
3.5 Contrasting Reactor Decommissioning With Other Facilities
3.6 Availability of Guidance and Reference Information

4 Typical Government Policy on Decommissioning
4.1 Introduction
4.2 How and Why is Government Involved?
4.2.1 Historical
4.2.2 Safety
4.2.3 Regulatory Policy
4.2.4 Security
4.2.5 Decommissioning and Waste Management
4.2.6 National Economic Benefits
4.2.7 The Consequences of Failure
4.3 Some of the Key Drivers for Government
4.3.1 The Costs Involved
4.3.2 National and International Responsibilities
4.3.3 Business Potential
4.4 Current Developments
4.4.1 Structural Issues
4.4.2 Skills Issues
4.4.3 Regulatory Issues
4.4.4 Waste Issues
4.5 Decommissioning Research Framework Programmes of the European Community
4.6 The Challenges Ahead

5 The Transition From Operations to Decommissioning
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Preparing for the Transition
5.3 Human Resource Issues
5.4 Information Requirements
5.5 Implementation Issues
5.6 Costs of Transition Activities

6 Reactor Decommissioning - The Safestore Concept
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Decommissioning and Radioactivity
6.2.1 Decommissioning Strategy and Option Selection
6.2.2 Activation Inventory
6.2.3 Worker Dose Modelling
6.2.4 Radioactive Waste Minimisation Modelling
6.2.5 Arguments Against Deferral
6.3 Decommissioning Activities
6.4 Paying for Decommissioning

7 Decommissioning PIE and Other Facilities
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Key Issues to be Considered
7.3 Alpha and Gamma Radiation Working
7.4 Decommissioning Examples

8 Preparation of Documentation for Decommissioning
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Decommissioning Plan and Programme
8.3 Decommissioning Safety Case
8.4 Conventional Safety Documentation Requirements
8.5 Management Procedures and Quality Assurance
8.6 Examples of Typical Safety Documentation
8.6.1 Materials Test reactors to Stage 2 Decommissioning
8.6.2 Jason (Royal Naval College) Reactor to Stage 3 Decommissioning
8.6.3 Site Environmental Remediation to Unrestricted Use

9 Radiological Characterisation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 General Approach
9.3 Characterisation Plan
9.4 In-Situ Measurements
9.5 Sampling and Analysis
9.6 Quality Assurance Requirements
9.7 Characterisation Report

10 Decontamination Techniques
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Objectives and Constraints for Decontamination
10.3 Characteristics of Decontamination Techniques
10.3.1 Non-Attritive Cleaning
10.3.2 Chemical Decontamination
10.3.3 Physical Attrition
10.4 Waste Minimisation and Treatment
10.5 Selecting a Decontamination Technique
10.6 Positive and Negative Experiences from Completed Projects

11 Dismantling Techniques
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Cutting Techniques
11.2.1 Mechanical Cutting
11.2.2 Thermal Cutting
11.2.3 Other Methods
11.3 Remote Handling Techniques
11.4 Radiological Protection During Dismantling
11.4.1 Contamination Containment
11.4.2 Personal Protective Equipment
11.5 Case Study: WAGR Decommissioning
11.5.1 Introduction
11.5.2 Decommissioning Plan
11.5.3 Remote Operations - Dismantling the Core Components
11.5.4 The Dismantling Campaigns
11.5.5 Fuel Strategy

12 Site Environmental Restoration Programme Management
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Framework for Environmental Restoration Programme Management
12.3 The Strategic Plan
12.3.1 Introduction
12.3.2 A Strategic Planning System
12.3.3 Managing the Care and Maintenance Process
12.3.4 Programme Risk Management
12.3.5 Programme and Project Prioritisation
12.4 The Integrated Site Restoration Plan
12.5 Making the Case for a Project to Proceed
12.6 The Project Sanction Process
12.6.1 Introduction
12.6.2 Typical Sanction Paper Structure
12.7 Principles for Carrying Out Financial Appraisals
12.8 Sanction Case Study - Repacking Site X Legacy Intermediate Level
Wastes

13 Project Investment Appraisal and Contract Strategy
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Capital Investment
13.3 Project Identification
13.4 Appraisal Methods
13.4.1 Rate of Return
13.4.2 Payback
13.4.3 Time Value of Money
13.4.4 Discounted Cash Flow
- Net Present Value (NPV)
- Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
13.5 Project Investment Examples
13.5.1 NPV Example
13.5.2 IRR Example
13.5.3 NPV vs. IRR
13.5.4 Project X, Other Problems and Discussion
13.6 Modern Contract Strategy in the Nuclear Industry
13.6.1 Introduction
13.6.2 Modern Contract Selection Appropriate to Nuclear Decommissioning
13.6.3 Types of Contract
13.7 Alternative Sources of Funds
13.7.1 Introduction
13.7.2 What is PFI?
13.7.3 Fixed Price/Risk Premium and Value for Money
13.7.4 Technical Viability and PFI Project Set-Up Costs
13.7.5 The Staged Approach to PFI
13.8 Enclosures
Table A - Present Value of £1
Table B - Present Value of £1 Received Annually for N Years
13.9 Exercises
13.9.1 - 13.9.8
13.9.9 Case Study - The "D-Two" Decommissioning Company
13.9.10 Case Study - The "Delay and Decay" Decommissioning Company
13.9.11 Suggested Case Study Solutions

14 Hazard Reduction and Project Prioritisation
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Understanding Risk and Doses
14.3 Hazard Reduction
14.3.1 Why is Hazard Reduction Important?
14.3.2 How are Hazards Reduced?
14.3.3 What Methods may be used to Gauge Hazard Reduction?
14.4 Project Prioritisation
14.4.1 Why do we need to Prioritise our Projects?
14.4.2 A Prioritisation Methodology
14.4.3 The Model
14.5 Case Studies
14.5.1 Case Study - Hazard Reduction Over Time on Site X
14.5.2 Case Study - "My project is more important than yours"
A Case for Project Prioritisation

15 Decommissioning Cost Estimating
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Conventional Cost Estimating
15.3 Standardised Cost Listings
15.4 Parametric Cost Estimating

16 Waste Management - Introduction and Overview
16.1 Requirements to Manage Radioactive Wastes
16.2 Characterisation and Segregation
16.3 Passive Safety
16.4 Classification of Wastes
16.4.1 Introduction
16.4.2 Exempt Materials
16.4.3 Clean Materials - Free Release
16.4.4 Very Low Level Waste (VLLW)
16.4.5 Low Level Waste (LLW)
16.4.6 Intermediate Level Waste (ILW)
16.4.7 High Level Waste (HLW)
16.5 Summary

17 Waste Management Strategy
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Waste Management Strategy Requirements
17.2.1 Regulations
17.2.2 Consultation
17.2.3 Completeness
17.2.4 NII Requirements
17.2.5 Environment Agencies' Requirements
17.2.6 ILW Disposal Company (Nirex) Requirements
17.2.7 LLW Disposal Company (BNFL, Drigg) Requirements
17.2.8 Integration of the Strategy
17.2.9 Costs
17.3 Elements of Waste Management Strategy
17.3.1 Waste Generation
17.3.2 Interim Storage
17.3.3 Retrieval
17.3.4 Treatment
17.3.5 Conditioning
17.3.6 Storage
17.3.7 Disposal
17.4 Strategic Planning
17.4.1 Waste Inventory
17.4.2 Evaluation of Treatment/Processing Options
17.4.3 Reference Strategy
17.5 Integration and Costing
17.6 Review and Updating
17.7 The Fundamentals of Licensees' Waste Management Strategies
17.7.1 UKAEA
17.7.2 BNFL
17.7.3 British Energy (BE)
17.7.4 Liabilities Management Authority (LMA)
17.8 Summary

18 Policy and Regulatory Aspects of Waste Management
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Nuclear Site Operations
18.2.1 Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage
18.2.2 Operational Safety
18.3 Environmental Policy and Regulation
18.3.1 Introduction
18.3.2 Specific Regulations
18.3.3 Assessment Terminology
18.3.4 Assessment Criteria
18.4 Environmental Management System (EMS)
18.5 Organisational Framework
18.6 Tolerability of Risk

19 Management of Low Level Wastes (LLW)
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Sources of LLW
19.2.1 Introduction
19.2.2 Fuel Manufacture
19.2.3 Nuclear Power Generation and Decommissioning
19.2.4 Fuel Reprocessing
19.2.5 Other Sources
19.3 LLW Disposal
19.3.1 Regulatory Controls
19.3.2 Waste Control Systems
19.4 LLW Disposal Practices
19.5 LLW Conditioning Facilities

20 Management of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW)
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Regulatory Requirements for ILW
20.3 Sources and Processing Requirements
20.4 Standard Waste Packages & Specifications
20.4.1 Waste Package Specification
20.4.2 Storage
20.4.3 Transport
20.4.4 Disposal
20.4.5 ILW Conditions for Acceptance for Interim Storage & / or Eventual Disposal
20.5 Case Study - Waste Packaging Exercise
20.5.1 Introduction
20.5.2 Waste Descriptions
20.5.3 Solid Waste Packaging Concept
20.5.4 Sludge Waste Packaging Concept
20.5.5 Questions and Hints to Answers
20.5.6 General Case Study Data
20.5.7 Suggested Answers to the Case Study Questions

21 Management of High Level Wastes (HLW)
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Origins and Disposition of HLW
21.3 Spent Fuel
21.3.1 Introduction
21.3.2 Storage
21.3.3 Security and Safeguards
21.3.4 Conditioning for Disposal
21.4 HLW Characteristics and Inventory Data
21.5 HLW - Current World Disposal Status

22 Transport
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Regulatory Requirements for Transport
22.2.1 Regulations
22.2.2 General Requirements
22.2.3 Package Specific Requirements
22.2.4 Mode Specific Requirements
22.2.5 Operational Requirements
22.2.6 Special Arrangements
22.3 Examples of Waste Transport in the UK
22.3.1 BNFL
22.3.2 UKAEA
22.3.3 AEA-Technology
22.3.4 Croft Associates
22.3.5 Nirex
22.4 Examples of Waste Transport outside the UK
22.4.1 Trupact
22.4.2 Cogema Logistics LR56
22.4.3 BNFL Vit Return Flask
22.4.4 Swedish Waste Shipments
22.4.5 Cogema Gemini
22.5 Transport of Large items of Decommissioning Waste
22.5.1 Application of the Regulations to Large Items
22.5.2 General Requirements
22.5.3 Examples of the Transport of Large Decommissioning Items
22.6 Regulatory Considerations In the UK
22.6.1 DfT
22.6.2 NII
22.6.3 Environmental Agencies
22.7 Waste Transport Planning

23 Radiation and its Control
23.1 Introduction
23.2 The Properties of Radiation
23.3 The Measurement of Radiation
23.4 The Biological Effects of Radiation
23.5 Radiological Protection Principles
23.5.1 Justification
23.5.2 Dose Limits for Protective Action
23.5.3 Optimisation of Protection
23.6 Methods of Radiation Protection
23.7 Choosing Detection Equipment
23.8 Practical Aspects of Radiation Protection
23.8.1 Designation of Controlled and Supervised Areas
23.8.2 Categorisation of Controlled Areas
23.8.3 Personal Protective Equipment
23.9 Summary

24 Site Remediation - Principles and Regulatory Aspects
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Delicensing
24.3 Chemically Contaminated Ground
24.4 Radioactively Contaminated Ground
24.5 Principles for Management of Contaminated Ground
24.6 Best Practical Environmental Option
24.7 Summary

25 Characterisation of Contaminated Ground
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Desk Studies
25.3 Walk Over Surveys
25.4 Planning the Characterisation Programme
25.5 Health, Safety and Logistical Issues
25.6 Non Intrusive Surveys
25.6.1 Radiological Surveys
25.6.2 Geophysical Surveys
25.7 Intrusive Surveys
25.8 Logging, Sampling and Analysis
25.9 Interpretation and Modelling
25.10 Databasing and GIS
25.11 Guidance on Site Investigation

26 Technologies for Remediating Contaminated Land
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Waste Minimisation
26.3 Immobilisation, Stabilisation and Solidification
26.4 Containment Systems and Hydraulic Measures
26.5 Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater
26.6 Best Practical Environmental Option

Annex 1 - A Summary of International Waste Management Practice
Country Specific Examples of Radioactive Waste Management Programmes
A.1.1 Belgium
A 1.2 Canada
A 1.3 Finland
A 1.4 France
A 1.5 Germany
A 1.6 Japan
A 1.7 Netherlands
A 1.8 Spain
A 1.9 Sweden
A 1.10 Switzerland
A 1.11 United Kingdom
A 1.12 United States of America (USA)
A 1.13 Central and Eastern European Countries

Annex 2 - An Example of a Project Sanction Case - Repacking of Harwell Legacy Intermediate Level Waste

Annex 3 - Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology
A 3.1 Introduction
A 3.2 Glossary of Accounting Terms
A 3.3 The Balance Sheet
A 3.4 The Profit and Loss Account
A 3.5 Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology
A 3.6 Depreciation
A 3.7 Answers to Exercises

Annex 4 - References, Internet Information and Book Reading List
A 4.1 References
A 4.2 Internet Information
A 4.3 Booklist

Annex 5 - Elements and Isotopes
A 5.1 Introduction
A 5.2 The Nucleus
A 5.3 Radioactivity
A 5.4 Half-Life
A 5.5 Table of Elements


The Trueblood Case Studies

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Case: 20-1 Rose Marketing
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Type: Distinguishing liabilities from equity
Subject: This case gives students an opportunity to apply guidance in ASC 480 on distinguishing liabilities from equity.
Applicable courses: Intermediate Financial Accounting, Intermediate Accounting, Graduate Financial Accounting (and even auditing in terms of an audit assertion on a financial statement treatment)

Case: 20-2 Snack That
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Type: Revenue/Leases
Subject: Evaluate whether a transfer of an asset by a seller-lessee to a buyer-lessor is a sale under ASC 842-40 with regard to sale-and-leaseback transactions.
Applicable courses: Intermediate Financial Accounting, Intermediate Accounting, Graduate Financial Accounting (and even auditing in terms of an audit judgement)

Case: 20-3 Hi-Tech Commerce Co
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Type: Principal vs. Agent
Subject: Evaluation of the criteria under ASC 606 to determine whether an entity is acting as a principal or an agent.
Applicable courses: Graduate Financial Accounting Graduate

Case: 20-4 Customized Software
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Type: Revenue
Subject: Application of the guidance in ASC 606-10 on identifying performance obligations.
Applicable courses: Intermediate Financial Accounting, Intermediate Accounting, Graduate Financial Accounting (and even auditing in terms of an audit assertion on a financial statement treatment)

Case: 20-5 Moving On
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Type: Leases
Subject: Determine whether a leased asset is abandoned and to identify the related accounting requirements, as well as the resulting impact on impairment accounting.
Applicable courses: Intermediate Financial Accounting Intermediate Accounting, Graduate

Case: 20-6 Auditing Cryptocurrency Assets
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Type: Cryptocurrency
Subject: Determine the classification of cryptocurrency holdings in the statement of financial position when an entity accepts cryptocurrencies as payment for its goods and services.
Applicable courses: Intermediate Financial Accounting Graduate Financial Accounting Intermediate Graduate

Case: 20-7 Real Value
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Type: Investments and Fair Value Measurement
Subject: This case gives students an opportunity to become familiar with aspects of ASC 321 and the challenges preparers face when they use the measurement alternative in ASC 321-10-35-2.
Applicable courses: Intermediate Financial Accounting Intermedaite Graduate Financial Accounting Graduate

Case: 20-8 To Sell or Not to Sell
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Type: Income Taxes
Subject: Measurement of deferred tax assets (DTAs) and deferred tax liabilities (DTLs).
Applicable courses: Intermediate Financial Accounting Intermediate Graduate Finanical Accounting Graduate

Case: 20-9 Skeptical Lens — Part II
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Type: Professional Skepticism
Subject: Examples to understand professional skepticism.
Applicable courses: Auditing

Case: 20-10 Auditing Logistical Logistics
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Type: Leases
Subject: Understand how auditors will design audit procedures for leases accounted for under ASC 842, Leases.
Applicable courses: Auditing


Back Cover

For a thorough and critical exploration of the key functions and issues within HRM today, Redman & Wilkinson’s Contemporary Human Resource Management is the book .

Written in a clear yet thought-provoking style, each chapter brings the benefit of its author’s expertise to deliver an accurate, incisive and engaging account of the realities of HRM today.

A clear structure treats the practice of fundamental operations in HRM before a second Part of the book covers issues of more recent and emerging significance. At least 2 case studies, exercises or activities in each chapter enable and encourage you to identify and examine key concepts in a practical context.

Not just reporting but also leading the debates across the field in this ever-changing discipline, this third edition includes chapters on:

· International HRM and Comparative HRM

· Recruitment and Selection

So, look no further. As an aspiring student or forward-thinking manager, Contemporary Human Resource Management is in your hands.

Tom Redman is Professor of HRM and Director of Research at Durham Business School, Durham University. Adrian Wilkinson is Professor of Employment Relations and Director of the Centre for Work, Organisation and Wellbeing at Griffith University, Queensland in Australia. He is also Visiting Professor at Loughborough University Business School.


Results and Discussion

We found plastic debris in all surface net tows carried out in the Mediterranean Sea. Five different types of plastic items were identified (pellets/granules, films, fishing threads, foam, fragments), with the majority of items being fragments of larger rigid objects (87.7%, e.g. bottles, caps) and thin films (5.9% e.g. pieces of bags or wrappings) (Fig. 1). Eighty-three percent of the total number of items collected in our nets was smaller than 5 mm in length, commonly referred to as microplastics. The shape of the plastic size distribution was similar to those found in the accumulation zones in the open ocean, with a gradual increase in plastic abundance toward small sizes and a gap below 1 mm (Fig. 1), suggesting removal of plastic items below 1 mm in size from the surface as suggested for the open ocean [5]. However, some differences become apparent in the lowest and highest parts of the size distribution. The proportion of plastic below 2 mm was lower in the Mediterranean Sea than in the open ocean, while the relative abundance of plastic in all size bins above 20 mm was higher in the Mediterranean.

The size distribution of plastic debris in the Mediterranean (n = 3,901 plastic items this study) is compared to those measured for plastic accumulation regions in the open ocean (n = 4,184 plastic items [5]). Both plastic size distributions were obtained using the same methodology. Horizontal axis shows the size limits of the bins in logarithmic scale. Because the width of the bins is not uniform, the vertical axis (i.e., normalized abundance of plastic) is shown as number of plastic items divided by the width of the bin (in millimeters). In the comparison of the plastic size distributions in Mediterranean and open-ocean waters, note the logarithmic scale of the vertical axis. The percentages (in abundance) of plastic types (pellets/granules, films, fishing threads, foam, fragments) found in the Mediterranean Sea are shown in the chart at the top right corner.

At the basin scale, the spatial distribution of plastic concentrations was irregular, with the highest concentrations scattered throughout the basin. There was no clear association with the main areas of deep-water formation [24] or with the accumulation areas predicted from particle tracking models [8], although high plastic concentrations were generally measured in both of these areas (Fig. 2). The patchy plastic distribution suggests that the variability in the Mediterranean surface circulation [24, 25] hampers the formation of stable plastic retention areas into the basin. A fraction of the variance in the measurements could be related to short-scale sources of variability. The multiple point sources of pollution in the Mediterranean basin could significantly control local plastic concentrations in the short term. High plastic concentrations were found in local shelf areas near population centers (i.e., Portofino, Italy [20]), although a significant correlation between plastic concentration and distance from coast was not found for the whole dataset (slope = +1.04 ±0.91 g km -1 , R = 0.1843, P = 0.2617). The small-scale spatio-temporal variability (at days and tens of km) associated with wave- and wind-driven turbulence must also affect the variability in the measurements and account for deviations from model predictions [8, 26]. As a result, the spatio-temporal resolution of the dataset used here precludes as yet a robust analysis of the linkage between hydrodynamics or pollution sources with the observed plastic distribution into the basin.

Gray-scale base map in the Mediterranean basin shows the relative surface plastic concentrations predicted by numerical modeling [8]. Darker areas are predicted to have higher concentrations. Major areas of deep-water formation in the Mediterranean are also shown with black circles [24]. In the global map, dark and light gray areas represent inner and outer accumulation zones, respectively, modeled for the five subtropical gyres white oceanic areas represent non-accumulation zones [7]. Mediterranean map compiles data from the present study and from ref. [20, 21], while open-ocean map compiles measurements of plastic concentrations from ref. [1–5, 10, 11]. Outside the inner accumulation zones, the open-ocean also includes concentrations reported without correction by wind effect (see details in ref. [5]).

Regardless, consideration of the Mediterranean Sea in the context of the global-scale distribution of plastic pollution clearly identifies it as a region of particularly high plastic concentration (Fig. 3). Net sampling sites across the Mediterranean basin showed plastic concentrations ranging from 22 to 1934 g km -2 , with most of the sites (92%) presenting high concentrations (> 50 g km -2 ) in relation to the range measured for the global ocean (Fig. 2). The average plastic concentration in Mediterranean surface waters was 423 g km -2 (243,853 items km -2 , as numerical concentration), comparable to the average concentrations measured in the inner accumulation zones of the subtropical ocean gyres, which ranged from 281 to 639 g km -2 . The Mediterranean Sea covers 2.5 millions of km 2 , within the spatial range of the inner accumulation zones of the ocean gyres, ranging from 1 to 5 millions of km 2 in the global circulation models [7–9]. Hence, the total load of floating plastic debris in the Mediterranean is comparable to that in the accumulation zone of the five subtropical gyres, and this Sea can be considered as an additional great accumulation zone of floating plastic debris at global scale. Based on the spatial coverage of our data grid, here we provided a first-order estimate of the range of the surface plastic load in the Mediterranean, using a wide confidence interval to address small scale of spatial heterogeneity. Thus, calculating a high-range concentration from the 90th percentile and a low-range from average of concentrations uncorrected for mixing by wind, the Mediterranean surface plastic load ranges from 756 to 2,969 tons.

A) Frequency distribution of the measurements of plastic concentrations in the Mediterranean Sea (n = 72) and in the global ocean (n = 1760). Mediterranean measurements (blue line) are from the present study and ref. [20, 21] ocean measurements (red line), including the five plastic accumulations in the subtropical gyres, were compiled from ref. [1–5, 10, 11]. All these data are mapped in Fig. 2. Size limits of the bins, shown in the horizontal axis, followed a 2.5-log series of plastic concentration (in g km 2 ). B) Surface plastic concentrations measured in the Mediterranean Sea, and reported for the inner accumulation zone of the five subtropical gyres (dark gray areas in Fig. 2) [1–5]. Ranges of concentrations outside the convergence zone of each subtropical gyre (white areas in Fig. 2) are also shown for comparative purposes. The boundaries of the boxes indicate the 25th and 75th percentiles, the whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the 95th and 5th percentiles, and the black and white dots mark mean and median respectively. All data in this analysis include correction by wind effect.

Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea likely results from significant plastic input combined with a limited export to the Atlantic Ocean. At global scale, the Mediterranean Sea acts as a convective basin. The surface inflow of light Atlantic water is transformed into denser, deeper outflow of Mediterranean water due to evaporation greatly exceeding precipitation and river runoff [24]. The net water flow through the Strait of Gibraltar in the upper surface layer (10 m depth) at annual scale is estimated to be in the order of 10 5 m 3 s -1 toward the Mediterranean Sea [27]. This hydrodynamic pattern suggests that a proportion of the floating plastic pollution in the Mediterranean may originate outside the basin, with the Mediterranean Sea acting as a sink for Atlantic floating plastic pollution. This proposition can be tested with input-output measurements of plastic flow across the Strait and accounting for the small time scale of variability associated with wind and wave action in this area.

The comparatively high abundance of plastic items larger than 20 mm found in the Mediterranean Sea (Fig. 1) could be explained by the shorter pathways that large plastic objects need to travel in the basin, compared to the longer distances needed to reach accumulation zones in subtropical ocean gyres. There are no estimates of plastic input for the Mediterranean Sea. Recently, the plastic input into the Black Sea via the Danube River was conservatively estimated at 1,533 tons per year [28]. Given that debris released by the Danube should be on the order of the Nile River alone [8], and that plastic also enters into the Mediterranean from other numerous terrestrial and maritime sources, the load of floating plastic accumulated into the Mediterranean basin seems relatively low in relation to the expected inputs.

Several studies have reported an abundance of large buoyant plastic objects on the Mediterranean seafloor [29, 30]. Large plastic objects (e.g., bags, and bottles) often show large cavities that facilitate their ballasting with suspended sediments and their colonization by organisms that use these floating objects as substrates or refuges. The diversion of large plastic objects to the seafloor likely contributes significantly to reduce the plastic load at the surface. Nevertheless, the size distribution of plastic items in the Mediterranean Sea also suggests important removal of microplastics. The paucity of small plastic particles (< 2 mm) in spite of the abundance of large objects (> 20 mm) suggests a particularly high removal rate of microplastic in the Mediterranean surface waters. Removal mechanisms of microplastics include ingestion by planktivorous animals and ballasting by biofouling [5, 31, 32], and these could be greater in the Mediterranean, where ecosystem production is higher than in the subtropical gyres. However, estimates of ingestion rates of microplastic by marine life or microplastic abundance on the seafloor are still needed to test this hypothesis.

The historical time series of plastic concentration in surface waters of other world regions initially kept pace with increasing plastics production, but plastic concentrations seem to have leveled off over the last three decades [1, 4, 31]. Whereas there are no long time series for plastic debris measured in the Mediterranean, combining available visual censuses of floating debris, Suaria and Aliani recently reported no clear temporal trend in surface plastic concentration since 1980 [19]. However, it is striking that the highest visual count of surface plastic debris in the Mediterranean was reported in the earliest assessment, conducted in 1979 in the center of the basin, near Malta [15]. In this visual assessment, Morris reported around 1,300 plastic items km -2 , at least one order of magnitude higher than all other visual counts carried out between 1986 and 2013 [16–19]. This result could be due to the fact that the counting protocol used by Morris, with small observation area and short survey times during an exceptionally calm period, was particularly suitable to detect small debris. He calibrated the minimum size detectable by the observer to be 1.5 cm. We measured 13,614 items larger than 1.5 cm per km 2 (range: 4,241–31,811 items km -2 ) in the central Mediterranean region, suggesting an order-of-magnitude increase in the surface plastic concentration between 1979 and 2013, comparable to the increase estimated in the North Pacific accumulation zone between the 1972–1985 and 2002–2012 sampling periods [4]. An initial rise in plastic pollution in the Mediterranean followed by a subsequent period of steady concentrations would agree with the patterns found in other ocean regions [1, 4, 31], but the limited spatial and temporal resolution of the data and the different assessment methods (visual counts vs. net tows) precludes a robust inference on the temporal trend of plastic pollution. The size distribution of floating plastic debris shows a power increase in plastic abundance from large objects to millimeter-sized particles. Therefore, visual counts strongly depend on minimum plastic size detectable by the observer, which is related to sea state, ship speed, observation distance and observer concentration [16, 19, 33].

The Mediterranean Sea represents less than 1% of the global ocean area, but has disproportionate ecological and economic values. It harbors between 4% and 18% of all marine species [34] and fishing industry, aquaculture, maritime transport and coastal tourism are key sources of income for the Mediterranean nations [13]. For this reason, the possible impacts of the plastic pollution may be particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. We know that plastic pollution may affect marine ecosystems and economic activities in different modes [35–38], although little is yet known about the magnitude of the implications of this pollution. Among the possible impacts, those related to the accidental ingestion of plastic debris by marine life are of particular concern since they may involve a wide array of marine taxa. In the Mediterranean Sea, plastic debris has been found in stomachs of small fish [20], seabirds [39], turtles [40] and sperm whales [41]. Recently, nanoplastic particles (in the order of tens of microns in size) were found in significant amounts in oysters and mussels cultured on the coasts of northern Europe [42]. In addition to gastrointestinal blockages and other harm derived from plastic debris ingestion, even including mortality [39–41], ingested plastics may contain high levels of toxic compounds added during manufacture or absorbed from seawater. Plastic debris absorbs contaminants, including bioaccumulative compounds, about one hundred times more efficiently than naturally occurring suspended organic matter [36]. Several studies suggest that some plastic-associated contaminants may be transferred to organisms during digestion [36, 43], and recent laboratory experiments indicate that plastic-associated contaminants may alter endocrine system function of fish [44]. In the ocean, high concentrations of plastic-associated contaminants (e.g., phthalates, and nonylphenol) have been measured in small planktivorous fish of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre [45] or in large filter-feeding organisms (basking shark and fin whale) of the Mediterranean Sea [46]. There are signs enough to suggest that chronic exposure of planktivorous animals to microplastic pollution could have extensive toxicological impacts on organisms living in the plastic accumulation regions, a threat requiring special attention in the rich Mediterranean ecosystem.


Abstract

Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3–15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM.


Case 1 chapter 15

Lahsene bouchikhi Chapter 15 case Assignment Dr. James Krolik MGMT 386 Case incident 1 Creative Deviance : Bucking the Hierarchy?

  1. Do you think it’s possible for an organization to deliberately create an “anti- hierarchy” to encourage employees to engage in more acts of creative devi- ance? What steps might a company take to encourage creative deviance? I believe it is very possible for organizations to create anti-hierarchy so that employees can be encouraged to engage in creative defiance. Taking for instance Microsoft most tiger teams are formed whose function is to serve as a micro anti-hierarchy group within the company. The teams solicit ideas from its members. Use of the Microsoft economy of scales benefit and developing a product idea will either be future program and platform on the base on which other programs should be developed (The World Bank in Africa. 2013). This is one of the by which ways the company can encourage creative defiance among the employees. The organization can also encourage creative defiance by offering incentives to facilitate innovation and entrepreneurship ideas and actions
  2. What are the dangers of an approach that encourages creative deviance? They are various dangers that may occur because of the approach taken to encourage creative defiance. For instances, there might be difficulties reigning in controls of groups after the processes are no longer relevant. It may also result to false authority. It is when the employees believe that they

have the rights to continue to act in a free creative environment when that is far from the job they were assigned (Brown, 2012). There is the danger that the employees’ moral will lower when there is no need of creative defiance any longer in the organization. This might negatively affect the performance of the organization 3. Why do you think a company like Apple is able to be creative with a strongly hierarchical structure, whereas other companies find hierarchy limiting? Apple Company has always been working with top-down architecture reason being that Steve Jobs had controls issues. It was difficult for him to trust any person but himself in making the final decisions. Every employee had to understand that Apple works that way and it will continue working like that. In contrast, other companies, which hire more diverse employees putting into consideration the type of individuals who work there (Goldsworthy, 2012). The expectations of this kind of monarchy organizational structures were not used as the sole means of communicating within the organizations. 4. Do you think Apple’s success has been entirely dependent upon Steve Jobs’ role as head of the hierarchy? What are the potential liabilities of a company that is so strongly connected to the decision-making of a single Individual? I totally disagree that the success of Apple Company is completely dependent upon the role of Steve Jobs as the head of hierarchy. Steve Jobs is known for having great visions and for being technical genius. He trusted many smart workforces and the board of competent persons to make final decisions for the organization. Although, he failed to delegate the final say clearly, he hardly knew that employees who are creative and bright could


Management of Bartholin's cyst and abscess using the Word catheter: implementation, recurrence rates and costs

Bartholin's cysts and abscesses occur in about 2% of women. None of the surgical or conservative treatment approaches have been proven to be superior. The Word catheter is an outpatient treatment option, but little is known about aspects of implementing this therapy in an office setting. The present study's focus is on recurrence rates and organizational requirements of implementing outpatient treatment of Bartholin's cyst and abscess and compares costs of Word catheter treatment and marsupialization.

Study design

Between March 2013 and May 2014 30 women were included in the study. We measured time consumed for treatment and follow-up and analyzed costs using the Word catheter and marsupialization under general anesthesia. We also assessed the ease of use of the Word catheter for application and removal using a standardized visual analog scale (VAS 1–10).

Results

Word catheter treatment was successful in 26/30 cases (87%). Balloon loss before the end of the 4-week treatment period occurred in 11/26 cases with a mean residence time of 19.1 (±10.0) days. None of the patients with early catheter loss developed recurrent cyst or abscess. Recurrence occurred in 1/26 cases (3.8%). Difficulty-score of application was 2 [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and of removal 1 [1], respectively. Costs were € 216 for the treatment in the clinic as compared with € 1584/€ 1282 for surgical marsupialization with a one-night stay or daycare clinic, respectively.

Conclusions

The present study indicates that the Word catheter is an easy to handle, low cost outpatient procedure with acceptable short-term recurrence rates. Treatment costs are seven times lower than for marsupialization.


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