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Identify ~6-7mm long green creature

Identify ~6-7mm long green creature


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Here is the creature I found on the glass lid of my light bulb. I guess they are attracted to light as they all concentrate on the light source. I live in Hong Kong. The brown things aren't moving (those might be eggs). The green creatures are about 0.6-0.7 cm long in body length (excluding appendages and antennae). They are sluggish in movement.

Can you help me to identify these tiny creatures?


Let's take a look at the magnified body of the insect (it is a nymphe btw) - we can see 2 brown dots one above the other along the body line. This pattern is very suggestive to Chelinidea species (the most common is Chelinidea vittiger aequoris):

I stop my search at Coreidae family, because multiple species (a lot of bugs actually) of this family have similar appearance, for example:

Gonocerus acuteangulatus:

But other enthusiasts can start from here (Coreidae family) and trace it down more precisely - I am sure they will succeed.


Bee identification guide

When to see them: March-November (sometimes year-round in the south).

Nesting habits: Old burrows and cavities.

ID tips: Distinctive yellow and black bands and a white tail.

Description: The classic stripy bumblebees. Several species of bumblebee have this colour pattern.

Early bumblebee

When to see them: March-June.

Nesting habits: Old burrows and cavities.

ID tips: Yellow and black bands and an orange tail. Small size. Males have yellow facial hair.

Description: The UK’s smallest bumblebee. Common in gardens and other areas with trees and bushes. The early bumblebee is a key pollinator of summer fruits such as raspberries.

Get your own bee ID guide

Order a bee saver kit and get a fold-out bee identification guide to take out into your nearest park or garden.

The kit also contains wildflower seeds to attract and feed more bees, as well as a garden planner and a bee-themed postcard.

Red-tailed black bumblebees

When to see them: April-November.

Nesting habits: Old burrows or tussocks.

ID tips: Black body and an orange tail. Male red-tailed bumblebees have a yellow ruff.

Description: Of the three species this colour, you are most likely to see the red-tailed bumblebee, but check for dark-winged red-tailed cuckoo bees which are nest parasites.

Brown carder bees

When to see them: March-November.

Nesting habits: In tussocks.

ID tips: Varying shades of brown or ginger. Rear legs bare and shiny. Common carder bees have black hairs on their abdomen.

Description: The brown bumblebee you will most likely see is the common carder bee. All three like tubular flowers such as foxglove and deadnettles along with legume flowers including beans.

Tree bumblebee

When to see them: March-July.

Nesting habits: Cavities above ground.

ID tips: Ginger thorax, black abdomen and a white tail. Black underside.

Description: This distinctive bumblebee first arrived in the UK in 2001. Your records can help us track its spread. As its name suggests it prefers to nest in trees, also using bird boxes and buildings.


Useful tips

  • Different species are on the wing at different times of the year. This can help you narrow down the list of potential species that you could have sighted.
  • Make sure you check the distribution and habitat of the species. Some species can only be found in certain parts of the country or in very specific habitats.
  • The colour of adult dragonflies changes with age. Tenerals (newly emerged adults) can appear very pale and may not have their mature colouration yet. You may have to look closely for any emerging markings or patterns to help identify it. Similarly very mature adults can appear much darker.

By Group More info

Flight Month

Habitat Habitat info

Main Colour


Contents

The green sunfish is native to a wide area of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, from the Hudson Bay basin in Canada, to the Gulf Coast in the United States, and northern Mexico. They are specifically indigenous to a number of lakes and rivers such as the Great Lakes and some of the basins of the Mississippi River. Green sunfish have been introduced to many bodies of water all across the United States, so are frequently encountered. [2] L. cyanellus has been transplanted to many countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe, where it has become established in some.

The green sunfish is blue-green in color on its back and sides with yellow-flecked bony-ridged (ctenoid) scales, as well as yellow coloration on the ventral sides. The gill covers and sides of head have broken bright blue stripes, causing some to mistakenly confuse them with bluegill. They also have a dark spot located near the back end of the dorsal fin, the bases of the anal fins. [3] and on the ear plate. It has a relatively big mouth and long snout that extends to beneath the middle of the eye. [4] Its pectoral fins are short with rounded edges containing 13-14 pectoral fin rays, a dorsal fin with about 10 dorsal spines and a homocercal tail. The typical length ranges from about 3-7 in and usually weighs less than a pound. The green sunfish reaches a maximum recorded length of about 30 cm (12 in), with a maximum recorded weight of 960 g (2.2 lb). Identification of sunfish species from one another can sometimes be difficult as these species frequently hybridize. [5]

The species prefers areas in sluggish backwaters, lakes, and ponds with gravel, sand, or bedrock bottoms. They also can be found in very muddy waters and are able to tolerate poor water conditions. Green sunfish tend to spend their time hiding around rocks, submerged logs, plants, and other things that provide cover.

Its diet can include aquatic insects and larvae, insects that fall into the water, crayfish, snails, other molluscs, [6] turtle food, frogs, [7] some small fish, fish eggs, bryozoans, [8] zooplankton, other small invertebrates, and sometimes plant material. [9] They are omnivores.

Green sunfish begin spawning in the summer with the exact time varying with location and water temperature. When they do spawn, the males create nests in shallow water by clearing depressions in the bottom, [10] often near a type of shelter such as rocks or submerged logs. [11] The male defends his nest from other males using visual displays and physical force when necessary. [12] On occasion, simply constructing a nest is sufficient for the male to attract a mate, but when it is not he will court a female with grunts and lead her to his nest.

They continue their courtship dance, swimming with each other around the nest until the female descends to deposit her eggs in the nest. The female will lay 2,000 to 26,000 eggs and leave them for the male to guard. He keeps watch over them until they hatch in three to five days, while protecting them and fanning them with his fins, keeping them clean and providing them with oxygenated water. When they hatch, the fry remain near the nest for a few days, then leave to feed and fend for themselves. [11] After the eggs have hatched, the male will often seek to attract another female to lay her eggs in his nest. Lepomis cyanellus typically live between 4 and 6 years in the wild. [13]

Green sunfish tend to nest in areas close to other green sunfish, as well as other species of sunfish. Due to the close proximity of multiple nests, a green sunfish female may deposit some of her eggs into the nest of a male of a different species. This in turn leads to the next generation containing some amount of hybrids. [11] These green sunfish hybrids will often look like a combination of their parents, often making it difficult to distinguish one species from another. [14]

The green Sunfish is considered an invasive species in the state of Florida and New Jersey. In New Jersey anglers must destroy them, and not release them. [15] They are illegal to possess without a valid permit on research or exhibition by a public agency such as an aquarium or research facility.

The IGFA all tackle world record for the species stands at 0.96kg (2lb 2oz) caught from Stockton Lake in Missouri in 1971. [16]

The generic name Lepomis derives from the Greek λεπίς (scale) and πώμα (cover, plug, operculum). The specific epithet, cyanellus, derives from the Greek κυανός (blue).


Softwood Trees

Softwoods are also known as gymnosperms, conifers or evergreen trees. They are abundant throughout North America. Evergreens retain their needle- or scale-like foliage year-round two exceptions are the bald cypress and tamarack. Softwood trees bear their fruit in the form of cones.

Common needle-bearing conifers include spruce, pine, larch, and fir. If the tree has scale-like leaves, then it is probably a cedar or juniper, which are also coniferous trees. If the tree has bunches or clusters of needles, it is pine or larch. If its needles are arrayed neatly along a branch, it's fir or spruce. The tree's cone can provide clues, too. Firs have upright cones that are often cylindrical. Spruce cones, by contrast, point downward. Junipers don't have cones they have small clusters of blue-black berries.

The most common softwood tree in North America is the bald cypress. This tree is atypical in that it drops its needles annually, hence the "bald" in its name. Also known as Taxodium distichum, the bald cypress is found along the coastal wetlands and low-lying areas of the Southeast and Gulf Coast region. Mature bald cypress grows to a height of 100 to 120 feet. It has flat-bladed leaves about 1 cm in length that fans out along twigs. Its bark is gray-brown to red-brown and fibrous.


Problems Caused by the Green Crab

The green crab has had a wide-reaching impact on the United States' coastal waters since its introduction. Significant losses to commercial fisheries and natural ecosystems have been documented in waters where the crab now resides, including decreased populations of clams, scallops, quahogs, and other native crab species.

These crabs have a wide variety of food preferences, and their ability to out-compete native species for food resources, high reproductive capacity, and wide environmental tolerances lend them the capacity to fundamentally alter community structure in coastal ecosystems. In Canada, for example, the aggressive green crab has been dubbed the "cockroach of the sea," and is known for completely mowing down eelgrass beds, a valuable ecosystem and food source for many species. There is also evidence of a cascading impact on broader fish communities where green crabs are present.

Complicating any understanding of the full scope of the impact of the green crab has been the more recent arrival of Asian shore crabs, thought to be displacing green crabs in some East Coast aquatic environments and also threatening native crabs and other species in the region. More research is required to fully understand the impact of these different invasive species interacting in the same environments.


An Identification Guide to Corallimorphs in the Reef Aquarium

The morphological differences that serve to separate anemones, corals and corallimorphs (i.e. “mushrooms”) are not always obvious, and perhaps nowhere do the lines separating these groups blur so much as with a peculiar, tentacled beastie found in many reef aquariums: the so-called “Orange Ball Anemone”. These small, soft-bodied creatures normally hitchhike in alongside pieces of coral and proceed to go about their business buried deeply within the nooks and crannies of live rock. When finally they get noticed, they usually get mistaken for a pestiferous anemone, but, dear reader, this is no anemone…

Corallimorphids are capable of causing some mischief in the reef aquarium, as can be seen by the pile of empty shells in this photo. Credit: gagonzalez

The Order Corallimorpharia, as I have expounded upon previously, is comprised of species that share with the stony corals (Order Scleractinia) a common configuration to their internal anatomy, as well as an identical array of nematocyst types their only major morphological difference is the presence or absence of an internal calcium carbonate skeleton. The most familiar examples are the various genera of mushroom corals (e.g. Discosoma , Rhodactis , Ricordea ) so ubiquitous in the aquarium hobby, all of which share a common gestalt—a flat, circular polyp with minimal tentacle development. Contrast this with the Family Corallimorphidae, whose members possess a more columnar shape with longer tentacles, and it’s easy to see where the confusion comes from. Externally, these really do look similar to the true anemones of the Order Actiniaria.

Corallimorphus profundus, from Antarctica. Credit Reimann-Zürneck & Iken 2003

The classification within the Corallimorphidae is still poorly understood, as most species have been minimally studied, if at all. The namesake genus, Corallimorphus , has six species that are mostly restricted to deep waters, easily recognizable by their large size and stiff, non-retractile bodies. The remaining genera and species are, with few exceptions, smaller and able to fully retract their bodies when harassed.

Pseudocorynactis and Corynactis form the bulk of this family, with approximately 17 recognized species. Unfortunately, there is no consensus at the present time as to how these should be classified. Fautin 2011 chose to combine the two groups together as Corynactis , but other authors have continued to treat them separately, citing, among other subtle differences, a second layer of spirocysts in the acrospheres (the bulbous tentacle tips) of Pseudocorynactis , giving it a highly sticky feel.

Corynactis australis illustrates the variable coloration in this genus. Credit: Simon Grove

There may also be ecological differences between the two, as Corynactis is likely an entirely temperate water genus, with most of its recognized taxa forming a single widespread species complex. Due to the variable nature of these creatures and the limited morphological differences between them, much of the species level taxonomy is inferred: C. viridis (Northeastern Atlantic & Mediterranean), C. carnea (Eastern South America), C. chilensis (Western South America), C. delewarei (Northwestern Atlantic), C. annulata (South Africa), C. australis (Australia & New Zealand). There is also C. denhartogi from Tasmania and New Zealand, which is far larger (

4cm diameter) than the viridis Complex and appears to grow exclusively on the flexible skeletons of certain black corals and gorgonians in subtidal habitats.

From Bonaire. Credit: Anne Frijsinger

From Bonaire. Credit: Brian Mayes

From Bonaire. Credit: CDIslands

From Canary Islands. Credit: Peter Wirtz

Note the bumps on this specimen. From Caribbean. Credit: Juan-Carlos Navarro

From Caribbean. Credit: Liliana

Unusually green specimen from Caribbean. Lynne Bentsen

From Dominca. Credit: Ned DeLoach

An unusual color variation. From Grand Cayman. Credit: sneakyweazle

An unusually green specimen from Grand Cayman. Credit: Sue Barnes

From Grand Turk. Credit: Shawn Sato

From Grand Turk. Credit: Shawn Sato

From Guadeloupe. Credit: Alain Goyeau

From Guadeloupe. Credit: Annie Bouxin

From Mediera. Credit: Lucas Berenger

From Martinique. Credit: Denis Ader

From Martinique. Credit: Michel Sutous

Note the prominent dark bands. Credit: unknown

The most widely encountered name in the aquarium hobby is the Caribbean Orange Ball Corallimorph Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum , but, oddly enough, actual aquarium specimens appear to be exceedingly rare (in fact, I’ve yet to see any). This large (

3cm diameter) and readily identifiable species is endemic to the Atlantic Ocean and was for a long time the only member of its genus. It can be recognized from its orange acrospheres and the usual presence of six dark bands spaced radially around the oral disc. While it could conceivably hitchhike in on cultured Floridean live rock, the vast majority of ball corallimorphs seen in aquariums are not this species, only misidentified as it.

Identified by Dr. Jacob Dafni, from Gulf of Aqaba. Credit: Dr Jacon Dafni

Identified by Dr. Jacob Dafni, from Gulf of Aqaba. Credit: Dr Jacon Dafni

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Sabine Penisson

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Olilam

From Egypt. Credit: Nikki van Veelen

From Egypt. Credit: Nikki van Veelen

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Jean-Pierre Lavigne

Aquarium specimen. Credit: unknown

Aquarium specimen. Credit: unknown

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Nicole C.

Aquarium specimen. Credit: lynn27

Hitch Hikers: Corynactis Ball Anemone

Found this thing on my …. sigh…. dead aussie elegance coral. My clownfish were trying to host in the elegance coral and the coral didn’t respond well so i put it down stairs in my refugium under an LED light strip to see if it would bounce back.

Two other species have recently been placed in this genus, both likely to be widespread in the Indo-Pacific. The White Ring Corallimorph Pseudocorynactis globulifera appears to be a semi-common species in aquariums, though this identification is based solely on images published online by Dr. Jacob Dafni and needs morphological and genetic confirmation. Whatever this form represents, it can be recognized by: 1) a small size of around 1cm diameter. 2) acrospheres varying from white to pale orange. 3) a distinctive white patterning around the base of each tentacle and further white speckling radiating towards the stomodaeum (the “mouth”).

From Pacific. Credit: Martha Kiser

From Mayotte. Credit: Yvon Rozenn Gildas

From East Nusa Tenggara. Credit: Mark Rosenstein

From Philippines. Credit: Arne Kuilman

An unusual green specimen from Sulawesi. Credit: Allan Saben

Note the radial bands. From Bima, Indonesia. Credit: Mark Rosenstein

The presumed Indo-Pacific sister of P. caribbeorum is the recently described Pacific Orange Ball Corallimorph P. tuberculata . This species is reported at up to 3.8cm in diameter and has prominent tubercles present along the upper sides of the column. The authors use this latter feature to help differentiate it from its Atlantic counterpart, but, based on images included here, it appears that this feature can be found in both species on occasion. There are no confirmed live photographs of P. tuberculata , and the authors make no mention of its coloration in life, but specimens which are likely to be this species are shown here. The bright orange acrospheres are distinct from other Indo-Pacific species, and the oral disc is covered in a dull, glaucous patterning that fails to form distinct rings around the tentacle bases as in P. cf globulifera .

Aquarium specimen. Credit: anthonystraus

Aquarium specimen. Credit: hypnostatic

Aquarium specimen. Credit: 37knucklehead

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Sabine Penisson

Note the fluorescence. Aquarium specimen. Credit: Lalani

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Gary Majchzak

Aquarium specimen. Credit: calistyle

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Daniel Knop

Aquarium specimen. Credit: unknown

Aquarium specimen. Credit: saltycoconuts

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Mark Levenson

Aquarium specimen. Credit: melchior

Aquarium specimen: Credit: philip_r5

Aquarium specimen. Credit: unknown

Aquarium specimen. Credit: sushi girl

Aquarium specimen. Credit: frogmanX82

Aquarium specimen. Credit: olliesshop

Aquarium specimen. Credit: 37knucklehead

Aquarium specimen. Credit: seamonkey

Aquarium specimen. Credit: rossi0611

Aquarium specimen. Credit: squishyfishy

Aquarium specimen. Credit: gholland

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Sabine Penisson

Aquarium specimen. Credit: hypnostatic

Feeding Pseudocorynactis

Uploaded by herreryx on 2015-12-01.

The Green Tentacled Corallimorph is the most commonly seen species in captivity. This small, fecund form is best diagnosed by the green fluorescence surrounding the tentacle bases and at the apex of each tentacle stalk. The color of the body varies from entirely or mostly clear to a more opaque orange or pink. It may be related to another small and gregarious species from the Atlantic, Corynactis parvula , which shares with this aquarium corallimorphid a propensity for vigorously reproducing asexually to form relatively dense colonies. Corynactis caboverdensis is said to be another related species, but is known from only a single 3mm specimen collected at the Cape Verde Islands off Northwestern Africa. Note that these latter two species are thought to belong in Pseudocorynactis , but this awaits a formal taxonomic revision.

Aquarium specimen. Credit: unknown

Aquarium specimen. Credit: unknown

Aquarium specimen. Credit: flashjordan

Aquarium specimen. Credit: grins

Aquarium specimen. Credit: unknown

Aquarium specimen. Credit: scubadan206

Aquarium specimen. Credit: saltman123

Aquarium specimen. Credit: flowerhorn619

Aquarium specimen. Credit: fishin204

Aquarium specimen. Credit: karlm

Aquarium specimen. Credit: grins

Aquarium specimen. Credit: psykokid

Aquarium specimen. Credit: maswired

The Red Reef Corallimorph is yet another small aquarium species, likely to be undescribed, which is quite similar to the preceding P. cf parvula but differs in having a much brighter pinkish-red coloration and lacking that species’ green fluorescence. This is probably the second most commonly seen form in captivity, and, while perhaps less prolific at reproducing in aquariums, it does seem to increase its numbers over time. More photographs are needed of this poorly documented creature.

From Timor Credit: Muhammad Erdi Lazuardi

Aquarium specimen. Credit: reefhotspot

From Philippines. Credit: Blogie Robillo

From Philippines. Credit: Blogie Robillo

From Philippines. Credit: Blogie Robillo

From Philippines. Credit: Blogie Robillo

Aquarium specimen. Credit: reefhotspot

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Phishy Business

Aquarium specimen. Credit: mobert

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Bryan Hall

From Fiji. Credit: Julian Sprung

Aquarium specimen. Credit: Nick Rosenthal

A shrunken aquarium specimen. Credit: brokecoloreefer

From Lembeh. Credit: diverosa

Aquarium specimen. Credit: peong

Lastly, there is the Giant Reef Corallimorph Paracorynactis hoplites , inarguably the most impressive species in the family. It comes in a variety of contrasting shades of orange, brown and white and is capable of reaching at least 21cm in diameter (with some aquarists reporting it growing to a foot across!). This species has received a fair bit of study recently, as it has been found to prey heavily on sea stars, including the infamous coral pest Crown-of-Thorns Sea Star.

An effective predator, seen here preying on a Crown of Thorn Sea Star. Credit: Bos & Gumanao 2008

Specimens of P. hoplites are able to capture prey far larger than themselves thanks to their impressively sticky acrospheres, but, being incapable of consuming such large items whole, they instead feed upon a single arm until it is eventually detached by the escaping animal. Other species reported to be on the menu include Linckia laevigata , Choriaster granulatus and Protoreaster nodosus , as well as short-spined sea urchins such as Echinometra and Toxopneustes . Interestingly, brittle stars were ignored, as was a cowry offered as prey, though a nudibranch and sea cucumber were consumed when offered.

Pseudocorynactis – The Orange Ball Anemone that Wasn’t

Although the common name for them is an orange ball anemone, the Pseudocorynactis are not anemones at all. Despite all these similarities, the Pseudocorynactis is a type of corallimorph, which they seemingly have little to nothing in common with on the surface.

Aquarium specimens of P. hoplites have become sporadically available in recent years, often at relatively steep prices and trading under names such as “Orange Ball Anemone” (best reserved for P. caribbeorum & tuberulata ) and “Chocolate Anemone” (also inaccurate, as this non-anemone isn’t made of chocolate). These are reported to be easy to keep but voraciously predatory, natch. The video above shows an entire table shrimp consumed whole, and most any other chopped meat will be greedily consumed. While this species is probably untrustworthy to keep with most fish, at least a few species have been observed to swim in or near its tentacles in the wild without harm, including the cardinalfishes Apogon multilineatus & nigrofasciatus , Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus and the gobies Trimma nasa and Eviota pellucida .

Dining upon a Blue Linckia. Credit: Bos, Mueller & Gumanao 2011

Obviously, there is a considerable amount of basic taxonomic work left to do on all these corallimorphids before we can accurately identify them. To aid in the recognition and discussion of these species, I have chosen in this article to create common names for each of these morphotypes with the hope that this will lend some clarity to accurately discussing them in the aquarium hobby. Aquarists are in a prime position to increase our understanding of these obscure and poorly known organisms by documenting the specimens which find their way into reef tanks. If you’ve read this far, how about taking a moment to search the dark corners of your live rock for Pseudocorynactis and maybe snap a photo or two?


Grouper

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Grouper, any of numerous species of large-mouthed heavy-bodied fishes of the family Serranidae (order Perciformes), many belonging to the genera Epinephelus and Mycteroperca. Groupers are widely distributed in warm seas and are often dully coloured in greens or browns, but a number are brighter, more boldly patterned fishes. Some, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), are noted for their ability to change from one to any of a number of other colour patterns. Also, in many species, such as the black and yellowfin groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci and M. venenosa, respectively), individuals inhabiting deeper waters are much redder than those living near shore. Groupers are protogynous hermaphrodites that is, they first function as females and later transform into males. They are prime food fishes and also provide sport for anglers and spearfishers. A few grouper species, however, may carry toxic substances produced by dinoflagellates that bioaccumulate in their flesh (increase in concentration at the higher end of a food chain) and can cause ciguatera, a rarely fatal form of poisoning, when consumed.

One of the largest and best-known of the groupers is the goliath grouper (E. itajara), which can reach a length of 2.5 metres (8.2 feet) and a weight of about 455 kg (1,000 pounds). The black, or Warsaw, grouper ( E. nigritus, also classified as Hyporthodus nigritus), of the Atlantic, is another large species. Adult black groupers can grow to 2.3 metres (7.5 feet) in length and weigh nearly 200 kg (440 pounds). Grayish or brownish in colour, it is the only grouper with 10 dorsal spines. Other well-known species include the golden-striped grouper (Grammistes sexlineatus), an Indo-Pacific fish about 25 cm (10 inches) long, marked with rows of dashes when young but black or brown with lengthwise yellow stripes as an adult the Nassau grouper, an abundant Caribbean food fish about 90 cm (35 inches) long, varying in colour from white, with or without darker markings, to dark brown or gray-brown the red grouper (E. morio), another Caribbean food fish, usually reddish with pale blotches and up to 125 cm (about 49 inches) long and the rock hind (E. adscensionis), an Atlantic food species spotted with orange or red and up to 61 cm (24 inches) long.


Identify ~6-7mm long green creature - Biology

Identifying Features

Javelina (Tayassu tajacu) also known as collared peccary, are medium-sized animals that look similar to a wild boar. They have mainly short coarse salt and pepper colored hair, short legs, and a pig-like nose. The hair around the neck/shoulder area is lighter in color giving it the look of a collar. Javelina have long, sharp canine teeth which protrude from the jaws about an inch.

Adaptations

One major adaptation for survival is the fact that javelina live in large family groups. The average group size is 10 or less, but a few herds have known to number up to 53 animals. Each group defends a territory which includes their sleeping and feeding areas. They communicate with their own family group and other groups using sounds and smells.

Habitat

Javelina live in desert washes, saguaro and palo verde forests, oak woodlands, and grasslands with mixed shrubs and cacti.

Range

They can be found in the deserts of southwest Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, southward through Mexico and Central America and into northern Argentina.

Wild Status

Javelina are doing well and are not currently listed as threatened.

Javelina are classified as herbivores. They eat a variety of native plant foods such as agave, mesquite beans, and prickly pear, as well as roots, tubers, and other green vegetation. However, if the opportunity presents itself, they will also eat lizards, dead birds and rodents.

Predators

The main predators of Javelina are mountain lions, humans, coyotes, bobcats and jaguars.

In the heat of the day javelina will rest in the shade of a mesquite tree or under rocky outcroppings. They have been know to rest in the shade under mobile homes, causing damage to the structure as they push their way in.

Life Span

In the wild, javelina live to be about 10 years old although some live longer. Captive javelina have been known to live over 20 years old.

Javelina stand about 2 feet tall and can weigh between 35 and 55 pounds. They are 3 to 4 feet long.


A Detailed List of Human Races That is Informative and Revealing

From quadruped catarrhini to bipedal brainy creatures, mankind has undertaken a long evolutionary journey. The following list of human races holds testimony to mankind's evolution into the alpha creature of all creation and how different races of humanity rule every corner of planet Earth.

From quadruped catarrhini to bipedal brainy creatures, mankind has undertaken a long evolutionary journey. The following list of human races holds testimony to mankind’s evolution into the alpha creature of all creation and how different races of humanity rule every corner of planet Earth.

Race is a fixed biological category that is inherited from generation to generation. – Dr. Charles Hirschman (Department of Sociology, University of Washington)

Before You Read Ahead

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Please understand that it is difficult to attribute each minor sub-sub-sub (till infinity) race to any of the major, classical races, as there is still much controversy among anthropologists regarding the origin of each sub-race. Such difference of opinion stems from the fact that different people have different theories about racial evolution, and the particulars of mass migrations and resultant interbreeding make it difficult to trace a particular sub-sub-sub-sub (till infinity) race to any of the four classical racial categories. Hence, only the broadest sub-racial categories under each major race have been discussed to avoid information bias or assumption fallacy of any kind.

Before we get down to enlisting the different human of humanity, let us first understand the concept of race itself. As far as classification of human beings is concerned, race refers to such classification based upon various parameters such as genetic and biological traits, language, culture, traditions, and social practices. The basic parameter for racial classification, however, remains genetic composition which manifests externally as one’s anatomical appearance.

The Basic Races of Humanity

along with their various sub-races (as a result of biological interaction of people belonging to different races) that can be seen on Earth at present.

The evolution of different human races is as old as the evolution of humanity as theorized by Charles Darwin. According to recent researches in the field of anthropology regarding the origin of mankind, it has been suggested that the human race may be older than originally thought. The following four races are the chief distinct classifications of humans based upon genetics and anthropology. However, we can see many sub-races as a result of matrimonial and reproductive interaction between people belonging to different races.

Caucasoid

The word ‘Caucasian’ comes from ‘Kavkas’, who is believed, according to ancient legends, to be the forefather of the Vainakh-speaking people (the Chechens, Ingush and Georgian Kist people), all of whom trace their ethnic origins to the Caucasus mountains, mainly along the North and South Caucasus regions. In essence, it means that either ‘Kavkas’ could have come from ‘Caucasus’ or vice versa.

The exact place of origin of the Caucasians is a matter of debate among anthropologists but most seem to agree with the aforementioned theory. The Caucasoids are further classified into various sub races such as Aryans (including some Indo-European populations), Semitic (Arabs, Hebrew speaking people), Hamitic (Berber-Cushitic-Egyptian native races), Nordic, Mediterranean, Dinaric, Alpine, Arabid, East Baltic, Turanid, Iranid and Armenoid. These sub races are primarily based upon geographic location and language. The Caucasian race and all its sub races are characterized by light skin color ranging from white to dark wheatish, straightish to wavy hair with color ranging from flaxen to brownish to dark ebony, prominent eyes, pronounced and well-shaped nose and sharp features, medium built and average to stocky musculature. Owing to the very cold conditions of the place of its origin, the Caucasian race has light and sparse skin pigmentation and, as a result, they are not very well suited to living in very hot equatorial climates and are ill-suited to remain exposed to strong sunlight for long.

Negroid

Thomas Huxley, the prominent Darwinian biologist, believed that Aborigines, Papuans, Negritos, and Melanesians should be categorized under the Australoid race, although a lot of his predecessors and contemporaries were unanimous about inclusion of these sub-races under the Negroid race.

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The Negro race is subdivided into sub races such as Aborigines, Melanesians, Negritos, Papuans, Dravidians, etc. People belonging to the Negroid race are physically characterized by dark skin due to dense pigmentation, coarse black and wooly hair, wide noses and foreheads, broad, often thick lips, large built and broad skeletal structure. The Negro race people are known for their stamina and ability to survive in very adverse environmental conditions, especially extreme heat. The dense pigmentation of their skin equips them to face the intense heat and strong sun of the equatorial belt of the earth, which is where this race is believed to have originated. Even today, the maximum number of Negroid race people can be found in the equatorial regions such as Africa, Southern India, etc. Negroid sub-races also include the following:-

Mongoloid

Due to the vast and diverse geographical distribution of the Mongolian race, the term “Mongoloid” seems more appropriate than “Asian”, as an umbrella term to refer to people belonging to this race.

The Mongoloid race include all those people who are classified under the sub races East Asian, North Asian and Native American. Mongoloids are characterized by yellowish or light wheatish skin, extremely straight and black hair, very less hair growth upon their bodies, small, almond-shaped eyes, slight built and very lean musculature. The facial features are usually small but clear. The regions of the world that are regarded as the homelands of Mongoloid race people are the far Orients, Northeastern India, certain American countries where Native American people can still be found, etc. The Mongoloid race can be classified into – the Neo-Mongoloids, which include ethic groups like Eskimos, Buryats, Chinese, and Chukchis. These groups have physical features that are extremely Mongoloid in appearance and are typically found in Mongoloid populations that have adapted to living in extremely low temperatures and cold climatic conditions. The second category is the Paleo-Mongoloids, which include ethnic groups such as Polynesians, Filipinos, Burmese, certain Native American people, Jōmons, etc. The physical features of these ethnic and genetic groups are less Mongoloid in appearance and such features are usually found in Mongolian populations whose lifestyles are adapted for living in warm to temperate climatic conditions over several generations.

Australoid

According to the ‘Out of Africa Theory’, Proto-Australoids (believed to be ancestors of the Australoid races) are thought to have migrated from the African continent and moved along the Southeast Asian coast towards the Australian landmass

The Aborigines, Melanesians, Papuans, and Negritos come under the Australoid race. In short, the original native races local to the Australian subcontinent come under this category. Most anthropologists debate the distinctiveness of this race as they believe that sub races like Aborigines, Negritos, etc., are genetically and physiologically very close to the Negroid race. This belief conforms to the Out of Africa theory. This could be the reason behind the racial similarities between the Australian aborigines and the native inhabitants of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Indian Ocean. Hence, many anthropologists and genetic biologists believe that these should be categorized as sub races of the Negroid race. Therefore, it is believed that the Australoid race is a classification of humanity which is based upon geographical location and regional culture rather than genetic and biological traits.

Tracing the Origins – Easier Said than Done

It is really not possible to accurately determine all the infinitely distant sub-races of a particular major race. This is, especially, the case in modern times, when inter-racial interactions, and resultant diversity in the permutations and combinations of interbreeding, has made it really difficult to trace a mixed-race person’s genetic heritage to any one of the four major races. Also, as far as theories go – whether they are about racial evolution, mass migration of entire populations or origins of a racially similar people’s nativity – they can get refuted any time another one, with contradictory evidence, shows up.

The most prominent example of such a perpetual scientific debate is the theory of Aryan invasion of India, which claimed that the Dravidians were the original natives of the Indian landmass. The invading Aryans took over the Northern regions and pushed them towards the South, where they have settled since. Recently, a number of historians, anthropologists and geneticists have come up with a theory that says otherwise. Both schools of thought back their claims with comprehensive analytical pointers as well as thorough interpretation of conclusive evidence. Owing to these factors, only the broadest classification of the four major human races have been discussed in this article.

It is unlikely that the debate surrounding what people belong to exactly which of the four races, tracing their ways back along what ethnogenetic pathways, will have a unanimous conclusion/resolution anytime soon. Any racial theory that is believed to be the correct one is only correct as of today – it will hold water only as long as a contradictory one, armed with ‘conclusive evidence’, doesn’t burst upon the scene. After all, history bears witness to such times when the earth was considered flat and this belief was so strong in its time that anyone who dared say otherwise (Nicolaus Copernicus) earned the wrath of those in power.

This was a brief and broad overview of the various human races that resulted post human evolution from simian ancestors. This list includes the four chief races of humanity from whence branch out the multiple sub races. Sub races can be as a result of inter-racial interactions, geographical isolation or any other natural or social interference to the evolutionary machinery.

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