The comparison between DNA molecules of different species has revealed the degree of similarity of their genes, which shows the evolutionary relationship.
The same is true for proteins that ultimately reflect genetic similarities and differences.
O cytochrome c It is a protein present in all living beings that do aerobic respiration, consisting of 104 chained amino acids. The percentage of each type of amino acid present in this protein varies in different species of organisms and is related to the evolutionary proximity between species. O cytochrome c it probably arose in the early days of life on earth, when the first living beings began to use breathing as a process for obtaining energy. Today this protein has small variations in each group of organisms, which must have established themselves throughout the evolutionary process.
Variation in the primary structure of a given protein in different species indirectly reveals its genetic differences since the code for the protein is written in the genes.
Similarities between DNA molecules
Recent advances in molecular biology have made it possible to directly compare the genetic structure of different species by comparing the nucleotide sequences present in DNA molecules.
The results of biochemical analyzes have confirmed the estimates of kinship between species obtained through the study of fossils and comparative anatomy. This further reinforces the theory that present living beings result from the evolution of living beings that lived in the past, all living beings being related by degrees of more or less distant kinship.
Does the man descend from the monkey?
In the controversial presentation of his work on the process of natural selection and the origin of species, Darwin was accused of defending the thesis that man descended from monkeys. is this really true? The charge is unjustified. Darwin never stated that. What he sought to clarify was the fact that all living species, including the human, would have emerged through a long process of evolution from predecessor beings. In this sense, men and chimpanzees, who had a common ancestor, would be “first cousins,” a fact that provoked the wrath of many Darwin opponents. And isn't it that the subject can now be clarified, with a fascinating discovery in the Chorora formation in central Ethiopia?
A group of Ethiopian and Japanese scientists found fossilized remains, actually eight teeth; of a new species of monkey - named after Chororapithecus abyssinicus (or Chorora Abyssinian monkey) - which lived about 10 million years ago and is being considered the oldest relative of the gorillas.
To explain it better: Until now, scientists believed that gorillas, throughout evolution, had split from chimpanzees much later. And after that, there would have been the separation of the lineages that originated chimpanzees and hominids (family to which the human species belongs). Now, with this new discovery, it seems that the origin of man is older, about 9 million years. And to top it off, this discovery is a strong support of the African origin of both humans and the great modern apes.
For those who believe in biological evolution, discoveries like this help shed light on the origin of humans. And also, to dispel myths based on unfounded accusations.