What are this designs which I found on curry leaves?

Curry leaves is the plant name where I found designs, but what are the designs present on the leaf?

Location: Argentina

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Use petri dishes and agar to grow bacteria.

  • What effect do household cleaners have on a bacteria culture? What about temperature? What is the best or worst environment in your house for bacteria growth?
  • Are there substances in your kitchen (garlic, red pepper, curry, tea tree oil, etc.) that have natural antibacterial properties?
  • Use the Gram stain method for testing whether Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria is more common in your house. Do common antibiotics interact differently with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria?
  • Studying mold growth conditions also makes an interesting experiment. What types of food mold the quickest? How does temperature affect mold growth? Are there some practical ways to slow down the growth of mold? Experiment with different types of preservatives to see how they prevent mold growth.
  • Does bacteria grow in a predictable pattern? Try an experiment by making thumbprint, fingerprint, or handprint bacteria cultures using agar and petri dishes.
  • How much bacteria grows in the mouth and what effects do common cleaning techniques have on bacteria growth? Consider brushing with a dry toothbrush, comparing different toothpastes, mouthwashes, and flossing as well as time spent cleaning teeth to find which methods work best to keep the mouth clean.
  • Is a dog’s mouth really cleaner than a human’s?
  • Use GloGerms to simulate the behavior of germs. Experiment to find the best ways to eliminate germs from hands and surfaces. (Test water temperature, soaps, length of time spent washing, etc.)
  • See a sample step-by-step project and more project ideas in our Bacteria Science Project Guide.


  • Design an experiment to experiment with leaf color pigments. (You might compare pigments of different species of leaves or leaves at different times of year.)
  • How do plants react to more or less light? What effect does wind or pressure have on plants?
  • What happens when different types of soil or fertilizers are used on the same type of plant?
  • How do heat and cold affect sprouting?
  • How do different soil types affect the ability of roots to anchor the plant?
  • Does light wavelength affect plant growth?
  • What is the effect of acid rain on plant growth?
  • Set up an experiment to measure the rate of photosynthesis and see the effects of temperature, light intensity, or concentration of CO2.
  • Design an experiment to discover the effects of abnormal radiation on plant growth, using irradiated seeds that are treated at different radiation levels.
  • Try growing seeds from different fruit that you’ve eaten. Which ones grow best?

Human Body & Anatomy:

  • Test reflexes, hearing, lung capacity, or vision. Does one age group seem to have better results than another?
  • Does your nose have anything to do with taste?
  • How does age affect peripheral vision?
  • How does the pH level of hair products affect hair quality? (Use pH strips for testing.)
  • Can petting an animal lower your heart rate? Is there a difference between petting your own pet and petting an animal that you are not attached to?
  • Does the heart rate of an animal decrease while it is being petted?
  • Is there a difference between video games that make the player be physically active versus nonphysical video games on the player’s heart rate or blood pressure?


    What household foods are most effective at attracting ants or other insects? What bait will probably attract the greatest number of different insect species?
  • What happens to insects in winter?
  • Which characteristic (fragrance, color, flavor) has the most influence in attracting a species of bee or butterfly to a flower?
  • Do bees recognize patterns? Can this help them find their food sources?
  • Design an experiment to explore how ants communicate with scent (pheremones).

Soil, Water, Acid Rain, and the Environment:

  • Do the organisms found at different levels of a pond differ significantly? You might try re-creating a pond “cross section” of life.
  • Where do you find the most polluted water locally? What about water with the highest and lowest pH? (Use a water test kit.) Does this have an effect on the organisms (fish, insects, algae, protozoa, frogs, etc.) that live in or next to it?
  • Investigate which pH and chemical levels are most common in your area. How do garden soils with different amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, or pH compare? (Use a soil analyzer.)
  • Which de-icing agent used on roads in winter has the least negative environmental impact?
  • You can make artificial acid rain by taking distilled water and slowly adding sulfuric acid (one drop at a time) until the pH of the water reads about 4.0.
  • You may also be able to collect rain water and test its pH level to see if it is acidic enough (pH


  • Study brine shrimp or protozoa what happens if you add mild pollutants to their habitat? (See our brine shrimp project.) Do different species (such as amoeba and euglena) react differently? (For testing specific species, you may want to get a live culture.)
  • What effect does temperature have on brine shrimp or Triops? Compare hatching, growth, and population rates in a warmer environment vs. a colder one.
  • How do earthworms help improve soil quality?

LC-MS–MS characterisation of curry leaf flavonols and antioxidant activity

Curry leaf (Murraya koenegii) is a common flavouring agent in Indian foods. This study characterised the flavonol profile of curry leaf extracted with different solvents and the relative antioxidant capacity of these extracts by quantifying phenolic constituents. Flavonols were extracted using ethanol, methanol, or acetone prior to identification and quantification using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC-MS–MS) with negative ion detection. Major curry leaf flavonols included myricetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-O-pentohexoside, quercetin-3-diglucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-acetylhexoside, quercetin-O-xylo-pentoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-aglucoside. Lag-time and TBARS tests demonstrated that curry leaf phenolics prevent cupric-ion induced oxidation of LDL. The best extraction yield was obtained with 80% ethanol. Acetone extracts provided better antioxidant activity expressed as increased lag-time formation, than did ethanol or methanol extracts. Curry leaf is a rich source of flavonols that have biological activity in vitro and further studies are warranted in regards to the potential health benefits and identification of the novel flavonols whose identities remain unknown.

Research highlights

► Curry leaf flavonols were extracted with acetone, methanol, and ethanol. ► Flavonols were identified and quantified by using HPLC, APCI, and LC-MS–MS. ► Curry leaf contains myricetin, quercetin, quercetin, and kaempferol glycosides. ► Curry leaf contains kaempferol and quercetin aglycones. ► Extraction solvent affects curry flavonol profile and LDL antioxidant activity.

Science Fair Project on Turmeric

Do you want to create an amazing science fair project for your next exhibition? You are in the right place. Read the below given article to get a complete idea on turmeric: 1. History of Turmeric 2. Cultivation of Turmeric 3. Curing 4. Uses.

Science Fair Project # 1. History of Turmeric:

Curcuma domestica Valet Syn. C. longa Auct. non Linn. English—Turmeric Hindi—Haldi, Bengali—Halud Punjabi—Haldar, halja’, Tamil—Manjal Telugu—Pasupu Malayalam— Mannal, marinalu, Kannada—Anshina Marathi—Halede Gujarati—Halada Sanskrit—Haridra, nisa Persian—Zard-chobah, dar-zard Family—Zingiberaceae.

Turmeric has been cultivated in India from very ancient times. It prefers sandy and clayey loams for its cultivation. The crop cannot stand water-logging or alkalinity in the soils. The largest supplies of turmeric are obtained from Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. Orissa is the next important growing area for turmeric where production is concentrated in the districts of Ganjam, Phulbani and Koraput.

In Maharashtra, the main centres of turmeric production are in Gujarat, Thane and Khandesh districts. Tiruchirapally, Salem and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu are also important turmeric growing areas. Other important states for this crop are-Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal, Rajasthan and the Punjab.

The total average under turmeric in India has been estimated variously from 60,000 to 100,000 acres, and the production is nearly 100,000 tonnes of rhizomes per annum. A large part is consumed within the country, but a portion is exported to the U.K., Pakistan, Sri Lanka and U.S.A.

Science Fair Project # 2. Cultivation of Turmeric:

The crop is propagated vegetatively by means of corms (swollen under-ground stems). The preparatory cultivation requires deep ploughing several times (six time or so).

It needs a fine tilth and heavy application of manure. The field is prepared into narrow beds with facilities for irrigation and drainage. The corms are planted from April to July in these beds, 6-9 inches apart in the furrows and 16 inches apart between the furrows.

After planting the beds are levelled and covered with a mulch of leaves. The corms develop aerial shoots above the ground in a month or so. One or two weeding’s are given, and the beds are earthed up. By November, the leafy growth is complete and the corms beneath the soil begin to thicken and to develop uniformly deep colour.

In the month of February the leaves turn yellow and dry up, which is an indication of maturity of the underground corms. Harvesting is done in March which continues till the end of April.

A great care has to be taken in harvesting operations. The whole clump consisting of both primary and secondary branches known as “fingers”, and the main thickened portion, the ”bulb”, are to be lifted up without injuring the corms.

The leaves and roots are then cut off, and the bulb and fingers separated from each other. Very small quantities are sold in this raw form. In India, the bulb of the crop is marketed as dry cured turmeric (haldi).

Science Fair Project # 3. Curing with Turmeric:

The raw produce of turmeric has to be cured properly before the commercial dry turmeric can be obtained. Curing consists mainly of three phases – 1. boiling, 2. drying and 3. polishing. After harvesting, the raw green turmeric is heaped up covered with turmeric leaves, and kept in this condition for some time.

The entire produce is then transferred to an earthen pot or larger iron pan which is filled up with water, the water level is kept 2-3 inches above the level of the turmeric. After covering the bulk with dry turmeric leaves, it is boiled over fire. As soon as the rhizomes become soft to touch, they are removed from the vessel, thinly spread out and dried in the sun.

After 5-7 days of drying, the produce becomes fit for sale and storage. When it is quite dry, it is cleaned to remove roots and other parts, and then rubbed well between hands. The dry turmeric is also polished by special appliances. Now the produce is sorted out into bulbs, fingers and splits, and graded into large and small sizes according to need.

The plant of turmeric is a robust perennial with a short stem and tufted leaves. The pale- yellow flowers are found in dense spikes, topped by a tuft of pinkish bracts. The rhizomes, which yield the colourful condiment, are short and thick with blunt tubers. They are cleaned, washed and dried in the sun, it is very aromatic, with a musky odour and yellow colour. It has a pungent bitter taste.

Just some little tips that I think would help you get started -

  1. Most curries are based on Onion and Tomato. A generic recipe would be - "Pour a little oil in a frying pan. Add spices till they start to crackle. Add chopped onions and saute till golden brown. Add chopped tomatoes and saute for a few minutes. Add dry spices/powders. Add vegetables/chicken/meat and cook". This is the most basic Indian recipe, and others build from here.
  2. Ginger Garlic paste is readily available, and is handy when you don't want to peel and crush garlic cloves.
  3. Garam Masala powder is always added last
  4. India is a huge country, and every region has its own distinct flavour. In general, North and South Indian food are totally different. The curries usually come from Punjab in North India, so searching for "Punjabi Recipes" is likely to get you better results. The most popular South Indian dishes are "Idlis" and "Dosas".

I would think the place to start is with a good book. Your questions about spices and equipment should be covered there.

At our house, we like cookbooks by Madhur Jaffrey. She has a quick and easy one that's really good, and makes it possible to make an after-work dinner that tastes like you cooked it all day (though you'll need a pressure cooker for that kind of speed). She has a bunch of others, though (her first came out in the early 70s), including two or three James Beard award-winners. I think she'd be a great place to start.

In my experience, standard kitchen equipment is all you'll need if you're not going to get into building a real tandoor oven or something crazy.

I enjoyed this book a lot.

It's clearly a short introductory book with nice tips and techniques and every recipe is a flawless winner.

Also, (important to me) the recipes has good photographs that guide you on the appearance of the dish . sometimes when cooking something I never saw before, I keep thinking .."should this be like so, or is overcooked? . Is this the supposed shape of hungarian tagliatelle :) ? . etc.

Look for a local company that sells bulk spices.

Spices can get expensive and for some dishes you often use just a small amount. In Indian cuisine, you often toast the whole spices first, then either grind the spices or leave whole in some dishes. Look for a good spice grinder (a coffee grinder works as well). Some of the common spices are: cumin seed, coriander seeds, black mustard seeds, nigella seeds, cardamom pod, fenugreek, saffron or turmeric.

There are several simple basics to Indian cooking. One is to remember that each dish (sabhji) is usually based around 1 lentil/bean or two vegetables. The second is to remember that anything with lentils or beans is for long cooking. Indian food requires patience.

Aside from that, there are several things that you can only really learn from making food and making mistakes. Cumin goes in at the start with the onions and hot oil. Turmeric only goes in with the liquids.

There is also a basic ratio of spices, but it's not easy to remember which goes where. The ratio is 4:2:1, more or less. Cumin, mustard, salt and black pepper go in the first category. Turmeric, curry, chilli and coriander seed go in the second. Cloves, cardamom, and cinnamon are in the third.

The best advice is to read ten different recipes for anything, and then choose what seems best.


Adidas Tour 360 XT-SL TEX

Best Spikeless Shoes of 2021 – FAQ

Q: How much should I spend on a shoe?

A: While it’s possible to find a well-designed, fully featured golf shoe for around $80, the majority of top performers sell for around $150. Golfers who play just a few times a year may be able to find a suitable option for less. Never skimp on comfort to save a buck.

Q: What is the main feature I should look for when buying a spikeless shoe?

A: Comfort is by far the most important factor, followed by traction. Stability is also an important consideration but different golfers require different levels of stability. Only after you have those three considerations covered should style factor into the decision.

Q: Is BOA/DISC technology better than laces?

A: Use of BOA and DISC technology is less prevalent in spikeless designs. Some golfers prefer modern closure systems to traditional laces but it’s certainly not a universal preference. Users of BOA and DISC report a tendency for their shoes to loosen throughout a round. Although it’s not a big deal to re-tighten, who wants to worry about it? Also consider that if a shoelace breaks, it’s easily replaceable whereas warranty replacements for other closure systems can take some time.

Quantitative Chiral Analysis by Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

Brooks H. Pate , . Melanie Schnell , in Chiral Analysis (Second Edition) , 2018

17.4.1 An example—the predominant enantiomer of menthone in buchu oil

The potential for chiral analysis by rotational spectroscopy performed directly on complex chemical mixtures is illustrated by the determination of the dominant configuration of menthone in a commercial sample of buchu oil ( betulina). The rotational spectrum of the volatile species in buchu oil is obtained using a head space sampling technique where the buchu oil is heated to 65 o C and the vapor over the sample is entrained in the neon gas flow for injection into the spectrometer. The broadband rotational spectrum of the vapor over the buchu oil is shown in Fig. 17.16 . The expanded scale section of the spectrum shows the instrument noise level and gives an idea of the transition line density in the measurement. The rotational spectra of 15 different known components of buchu oil have been identified in this spectrum. Using the results from GC–MS analysis of buchu oil samples, these species have 0.06%–22% relative abundance in the oil [89,90] . Given the transition density of the spectrum, a chiral tag approach to sample analysis would seem impossible. A major advantage of three-wave mixing approaches is that they can be applied without increasing the spectral complexity.

Figure 17.16 . The extension of three-wave mixing measurements to complex chemical mixtures is illustrated using buchu oil as the sample.

The broadband spectrum of the head space vapor over the oil sample is shown. Fifteen different molecular components of the oil are detected from this spectrum. The bottom panel shows an expanded scale of the spectrum to show the instrument noise floor (red line) and to show that the measured spectrum is still completely spectrally resolved.

The component of interest in this example is menthone which makes up 10% of the buchu oil. The rotational spectrum of menthone has been previously analyzed and it is known to exist in three conformational isomers in the pulsed jet expansion. The simulated spectra of these three isomers using the reported fitted rotational constants [65] are shown in Fig. 17.17 to indicate the presence and transition intensity of menthone in the head space measurement.

Figure 17.17 . Menthone is one of the components of buchu oil and makes up about 10% of the mixture of volatiles.

This figure shows spectral simulations of three conformers (A, B, and C) of menthone compared to the buchu oil broadband rotational spectrum. The spectrum simulations used the experimental fitted constants from Ref. [65] . This comparison illustrates an important feature of rotational spectroscopy. Instruments all use a high-accuracy time standard (Rb-disciplined quartz oscillators and the 1 pps GPS reference are the most common time base references) so that the measured transition frequencies reproduce from instrument-to-instrument to very high accuracy. This feature makes the use of previously measured library spectra very powerful in the analysis of complex chemical mixtures by rotational spectroscopy.

The determination of the dominant enantiomer of menthone is made using three-wave mixing rotational spectroscopy. The spectrometer used in this measurement is described in Ref. [91] . The transition cycle used in the measurement is shown in Fig. 17.18 . The phase of the chiral three-wave signal is calibrated using a commercial sample of (−)-menthone with 98.8 EE. The three-wave pulse sequence is then applied to head space sample and the results are shown in Fig. 17.18 . The first pulse of the cycle (5059.36 MHz) uses an a-type transition to create the initial sample polarization. The spectrum observed after application of just this pulse is compared to the full broadband spectrum in the top of Fig. 17.18 . Several transitions, including the one for the menthone measurement cycle, are observed. These additional transitions are excited by the bandwidth of the first excitation pulse.

Figure 17.18 . This figure shows the three-wave mixing measurement performed on the buchu oil sample.

The level diagram for the measurement cycle is shown on the left. The middle panel shows the spectrum of buchu oil after application of the first drive pulse of the three-wave mixing sequence. In this case, several nearby peaks are observed in addition to the menthone peak (indicated with the asterisk). These transitions fall within the spectral bandwidth of the drive pulse. The spectrum in the region of the chiral sum-frequency transition after the application of the low frequency coherence transfer pulse is shown on the right. In this case, the double-resonance nature of the measurement has provided full chemical selectivity and only the chiral sum-frequency signal is observed.

The enantiomer-sensitive three-wave measurement is completed by applying the low-frequency pulse (854.69 MHz) using a c-type transition to transfer the initial coherence into the detected transition (at the sum frequency: 5914.05 MHz). The spectrum in the region of the detected sum frequency signal at 5914.05 MHz, a strong b-type transition, is shown in the bottom panel where it is also compared to the full spectrum from the buchu oil head space vapor. The ability of the doubly-resonant three-wave mixing pulse sequence to isolate the chiral response for a single component (menthone) in a complex mixture is demonstrated.

The determination of the dominant enantiomer of menthone present in buchu oil is obtained from the phase of the chiral signal at 5914.05 MHz. The digitally filtered FID signal in a 1 MHz bandwidth around 5914.05 MHz is shown in Fig. 17.19 . The bottom panel shows an expanded scale where the digitized signal can be clearly seen. There are three phase measurements shown here. Two of them are from the (−)–menthone commercial reference sample and were taken before (red) and after (green) the buchu oil measurement. These show that there is long term phase stability in the instrument. The measurement of the phase of the menthone chiral signal in buchu oil (blue) is out-of-phase with the reference measurement and indicates that the sample has (+)-menthone as the dominant enantiomer—as is known for this essential oil [91] . Note that these time-domain signals have been renormalized so that they can be compared and that the buchu oil measurement has lower signal-to-noise ratio than the reference sample measurements due to its 10% abundance in the oil.

Figure 17.19 . The absolute configuration of the higher-abundance enantiomer of menthone in buchu oil is determined by comparison of the phase of the three-wave mixing signal to a reference measurement using a commercial sample of (−)-menthone with high enantiopurity.

In this case, the signal from the menthone in buchu oil is found to be out-of-phase with respect to the reference measurement showing that (+)-menthone is the dominant enantiomer in the essential oil.

What Are The Available Treatments For Hair Loss?

Treatment for hair loss may include:

  • Medications like minoxidil (Rogaine) that is approved for both men and women, finasteride (Propecia) for men, and other drugs like spironolactone and oral contraceptives for women.
  • Hair transplant surgery or restoration surgery that includes taking skin patches with multiple hair follicles and implanting them onto bald patches.
  • Laser therapy to improve hair density.

While these treatments may help you deal with hair loss, there is a high chance of recurrence if the cause is hereditary. Also, most of the medications used to treat hair loss come with side effects like reduced libido, scalp irritation, and an increased risk of prostate cancer in men. The other treatment methods like hair transplant surgery and laser therapy may be heavy on your pocket and may have side effects like scarring.

Hence, instead of investing your time and money in such treatments, if you have mild hair fall, it is better to opt for natural alternatives that are completely safe for your scalp and skin. Listed below are some excellent home remedies that are proven to help with hair fall.

14 Mosquito Repellent Plants

Many of these plants are aromatic. For example, lavender emits a delicious scent to humans that evokes a sense of relaxation, but mosquitoes find the smell repulsive.

1. Basil

It’s hard not to love basil it gives us delicious pesto sauce and tomato basil salads. While being a top culinary herb, basil also keeps mosquitoes away like a boss.

As you already know, basil is highly aromatic, and its aroma drives the mosquitoes away. You don’t need to crush up the leaves or prepare them in any way. The scent alone is all that is required. Also, basil is toxic to mosquito larvae, so put one or two plants near areas that typically have standing water to stop mosquitoes from laying eggs.

2. Lavender

Lavender is a beloved herb due to its pleasant scent. You might love to smell lotion or candles that contain lavender after a long day at work. Lavender plants also drive mosquitoes far away at the same time. It also keeps other flying pests, such as moths, fleas, flies, and spiders at bay.

Lavender attracts butterflies and bees to your garden. You can apply lavender directly to your skin. Try using lavender oil on your body before you go to sleep because it not only helps mosquitos away, but it can deter bed bugs as well.

3. Bee Balm

You might recognize this plant by the name of wild bergamot and horsemint. It’s a natural mosquito-repelling plant that attracts all of the bees and butterflies to your yard, along with hummingbirds. Bee balm is typically used in jellies, teas, and garnishments for salads.

Planting bee balm also adds some pretty color to your yard. Medicinally, it’s safe for your skin, and it’s useful as an oil. You also can dry the leaves to make tea to fight off fungal infections.

4. Lemon Balm

Instead of bee balm, you can plant lemon balm in your garden beds. This member of the mint family is often used to help reduce stress, alleviate stomach trouble, and more. Not only does this ornamental herb taste great, but it also helps to fight off mosquitoes as well as fleas.

Be sure to keep lemon balm contained because it’s an invasive species that, like mint, can take over your garden bed when planted. Plant lemon balm in containers so that you can reap the benefits without it taking over your entire garden.

5. Lemongrass

Lemongrass has a high level of citral, which is an oil that is used in mosquito repellents. You can use it to repel flies while being toxic to mosquito larvae. Of course, lemongrass is also delicious in a range of dishes – from tom kha gai soup to lemongrass tea.

6. Citronella

Most people know about citronella plants. It’s most commonly found in commercial insect repellents and citronella candles. Citronella has a strong scent that masks the smell of other attractants, such as the smell of carbon dioxide coming from your body.

This plant is rather large, but it can still do well in containers. It’s low maintenance, so you don’t have to do too much work to keep away the mosquitoes. Watch out for frost because this plant will die if the temperatures drop too low.

7. Peppermint

Mint is known to overtake a garden bed quickly, so it’s best if you keep peppermint in a separate container rather than the ground itself. Peppermint oil is excellent for repelling mosquitoes, but it also can help relieve discomfort from itchy mosquito bites during the summer. This herb also helps to repel spiders.

8. Rosemary

This herb is a popular culinary seasoning that is most commonly used in chicken dishes. While it tastes great, rosemary also helps keep several different types of insects away from your family. You can burn rosemary in a fire for an aromatic insect repellent, but be careful not to get too close to the smoke. Another choice is to use rosemary oil on your skin.

9. Sage

You might recognize sage for its culinary purposes or its uses as a spiritual cleanser in different cultures. Bundles of sage are often burned in certain rituals to get rid of spirits.

Another use for sage is to burn it to keep the mosquitoes away from you. Throw some sage leaves on your backyard fire pit or in your fireplace. Not only will it fill your home with a lovely aroma as well as repelling mosquitoes from the area.

You might also want to try sage because it can repel ticks. Ticks are a danger to you and your pet’s health, so keeping them away from your family is a top priority. At the same time, sage can attract hummingbirds. You can use it as an oil on your skin if you prefer.

10. Catnip

Chances are you recognize this plant because it makes cats go crazy, but it does more than that. Catnip contains a chemical called nepetalactone, which is a mosquito repellent. It’s also the same chemical that makes our cats act like an addict looking for a quick fix.

Many people claim that catnip is more effective than DEET, which is a chemical in most insect repellents. Evidence shows us that DEET is terrible for our health, so why not use a natural alternative that works as well?

Because of its potent chemical compounds, placing a few catnip plants in your garden will keep mosquitoes away for a long time. Cats also like to rub and roll in it, so make sure you plant this plant in a cat-friendly area. Cats have no moral objections to destroying your garden beds to reach their catnip.

11. Garlic

If garlic can keep vampires away, then surely it can keep mosquitoes away as well. Their pungent smell deters most insects. You can consume garlic to create a mild effect that is reported to help repel mosquitoes.

Another choice is to squeeze or rub the juice from the garlic bulbs directly onto your skin. That might keep mosquitoes away, but it also might keep your friends and family away as well.

12. Floss Flower

Floss flowers – also known as Mexican paintbrush or blueweed – are often overlooked, but they contain a chemical called coumarin, which is used in mosquito repellents. They’re fantastic additions to your garden bed because of the funky fuzzy flowers. It adds a unique addition to your flower bed or as an edging plant. You can find floss flowers in blue, pink, white, and purple.

These flowers also deter flies, rabbits, and deers, which all can cause severe damage in your garden beds. At the same time, floss flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds both beneficial pollinators. However, the chemical isn’t safe for your skin, so don’t try to rub them on your arms.

13. Marigold

Most garden beds contain some marigolds because they’re a popular edging plant for landscaping and vegetable gardens. Marigolds are an annual flower with a strong fragrance that tastes great in salads, herb butters, and soups because of their light and citrusy taste.

The reason why marigolds work to deter mosquitoes is that they contain pyrethrum. That is a compound used in many repellents, sometimes referred to as nature’s insecticide. Pyrethrum repels deer and rabbis while also attracting butterflies and bees. Marigolds are also safe for the skin.

14. Geraniums

Geraniums are another flower that has a slight lemon scent, and it can be used to keep many different pests away from your home and garden. They are a mosquito repellent plant and they also repel flies. Geraniums have beautiful, large blooms in many different vibrant colors that make them perfect for decorating and landscaping.

Scented geraniums contain small amounts of citronella, so that helps deter mosquitos even more. At the same time, the scent can attract butterflies to your garden, which are helpful pollinators for other flowers and plants.


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