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What is the lifecycle of hanging woody vines?

What is the lifecycle of hanging woody vines?


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In the first ten seconds of this video, you can see a vine that appears to have started its life 60 feet up in a tree and has now grown down almost close enough to touch the ground. I have seen similar vines that do make it to the ground and start curling around, but don't sink roots. Why do they create this long woody stem? Or do they start at the bottom, grow up the tree, and then release their roots somehow so they can swing free? They're sometimes not wrapped around the trunk at all, just hanging from the very upper branches, as if their seeds found purchase there and started stealing nutrients to grow. Is that possible?

I have swung from these in several locations in Wisconsin and Iowa. They're very tightly attached.


There are no epiphytic vines in the US. Most likely, if it's sturdy enough that you can swing from it, it's the vine of a wild grape. (The vine in the video is classic wild grape.)

They grow like most other flowering plants: they start innocently enough with a seed that takes root in the ground. They are initially tender and small stemmed.

From there, they grow along the ground, sending out tendrils. If they find something growing vertically, they cling to it (a shrub, tree trunk, or a low hanging branch) and grow upwards towards the light. If they have enough light (they are shade intolerant), they continue to grow, branch, and elongate. because they can become quite heavy, they break canopy branches of their supporting tree and fall in long loops toward the ground.

If the loop breaks for some reason, you have one swinging vine. But if you diligently follow it back, you'll find either the continuation of the vine near the canopy (the part after the break) or the trunk growing from the ground alongside of a nearby tree.

Though cool-looking, they are very destructive, bringing down not only branches but often entire trees (plural. They intertwine different tree branches, and if they bring down one tree, others fall in a domino-effect.)

Imagine that SOB hanging onto your upper arms for support (not the guy, the grapevine).

Smaller vines (which can also be destructive) that climb up the sides of trees are Oriental Bittersweet, Poison Ivy, Virginia Creeper, etc. (Probably Kudzu as well, but we don't have that here yet.) But these aren't likely to become large or sturdy enough to swing from if they come loose from the tree.

This is a photo of two common offenders: a wild grape (dark shreddy bark, about 2.5 inches in diameter) being slowly strangled by an oriental bittersweet (lighter bark), both climbing this large oak. If you look carefully, the base (roots) of both these vines are behind the tree (about five feet), one on either side. (You might have to take my word for it… )

Wild Grape


Classification Of Plants

Taxonomy is a system for classifying plants based on their genetic and evolutionary relationship. Plant Taxonomy is a branch of science that continues to change as new species are being found almost every day.

Plants are classified into a separate kingdom called the Kingdom Plantae. This current system of classification of plants is based on the evolutionary relationship with other plants.

  • Gymnosperms: It is a group of plants that is primarily evergreen and is native to the temperate zone. There are about 700 species discovered to date. They are vascular, non-flowering plants which produce seeds without the production of flower and fruits. Some common examples of gymnosperm include pines, cycads, cedars, etc.
  • Anthophyta (Angiosperms): They can grow into big trees as well as small shrubs, bushes, and herbs. The angiosperms are distributed all over the world (>250,000 species). Most of the plants that we see around us are grouped under this division. Angiosperms are characterized by seeds that are fully enclosed in fruits. They are subdivided into- Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous. Some common examples of angiosperms include mango trees, roses, jasmine, marry gold, etc.
  • Monocotyledons: Monocotyledonous plants are commonly referred to as monocot plants. They are flowering plants with seeds containing one cotyledon. The venation pattern of their leaves is parallel-veined. Some common examples of monocot plants are rice, corn, sugarcane, tulips, onion, etc. There are around 50,000 species of monocotyledonous plants discovered to date.
  • Dicotyledons: Dicotyledonous plants are commonly referred to as dicot plants. They are flowering plants, mostly grown as herbs, shrubs, and trees with the seed containing two cotyledons. The venation pattern of their leaves radiates from a central main vein. Some common examples are figs, eucalyptus, potato, tomato, hibiscus, etc. There are around 200,000 species of dicotyledonous or dicots plants.

Importance of Plant Classification

The main purpose of classifying plants is to ensure that the right plants are correctly named, grouped, and identified.


Bougainvillea Bougainvillea is a genus of 18 flowering plants, native to South America, and in the Nyctaginaceae (four-o&rsquoclock) family. They are woody vines with a scrambling habit. Plant them in full sun in sandy or loamy acidic soils with good drainage. They are tolerant of drought, heat, and salt. Traditionally planted along trellises and fences, they can be trained to grow more shrub-like in containers. The plant is sterile and is propagated from stem cuttings. Blooming is on new growth. The actual flower is small, tubular, and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three to six brightly colored bracts, including pinks, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow colors. In cooler climates, they can be used as an annual or a houseplant in containers and hanging baskets but are most often seen growing indoors in a conservatory. Quick ID Hints: Stem is covered in long, thin thorns that often appear at the leaf axil Three small white flowers are surrounded by three to six brightly colored bracts Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Aphids are occasional problems. Thorns are present. VIDEO Created by Elisabeth Meyer for "Annuals, Perennials, Vines, and Groundcovers" a plant identification course offered in partnership with Longwood Gardens. Close up of flower Clint Bud CC BY 2.0 Leaves Scot Nelson CC0 1.0 Orange to yellow blooms AncientDreamer CC BY-SA 4.0 Growing on a fence CC0 1.0 Floers Jim Robbins CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 As bonsai Kathy Sill CC BY 4.0 How Woody Vines Do the Twist

Slowly, scientists are learning how lianas quickly climb.

Wood is typically thought of as stiff and rigid, but some wood, in the race upward to access the best sunlight, twists. Lianas, or woody vines, are concentrated in tropical forests they possess a narrow stem that lets them climb to the top of the canopy, more than 100 feet above the ground, as quickly as possible by twisting their way around tree trunks. Basking in the sun at the top, these vines flower, fruit and lay out new leaves as they photosynthesize.

But the number of lianas is increasing in tropical forests relative to trees, and their overabundance can hamper a forest’s ability to store carbon, so botanists are eager to learn as much about these plants as they can.

“We understand a lot about their ecology, but we don’t understand how these diverse and strange wood forms evolved,” said Joyce Chery, a botanist at Cornell, and the lead author of a study published earlier this year in the journal Current Biology.

In early 2017, as a graduate student, Dr. Chery visited the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, where she collected cross-section samples of various species of Paullinia, a lineage of liana. Those samples are now part of the herbaria at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Panama.

Dr. Chery extracted DNA from the leaves and analyzed the molecular sequence of each sample, and of similar samples stored at herbaria at the University of Panama, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the Smithsonian Institution. She also studied the configuration of cells in 148 samples of cross-sections of the stems.

From this analysis, Dr. Chery and the co-authors on the recent paper identified five patterns of stem growth, ranging from circular to lobed, to star-shaped cross-sections.

The driving force behind each of these patterns is a bundle of cells behind the bark called the vascular cambium. To survive, a woody vine must be both strong and flexible — variant shapes allow woody vines to make the twists and turns they need to be successful in the tropics. Their sugar- and water-conducting cells are positioned in irregular ways, far different than they would be in run-of-the-mill trees or shrubs.

“Whereas trees all tend to be the same shape, lianas are all over the place,” said Stefan Schnitzer, a botanist at Marquette University who was not involved in the study.

These strange stem variations give the vines an advantage. “Being asymmetrical helps you to anchor in the trees you’re growing on,” said Marcelo Rodrigo Pace, a botanist at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and a co-author of the study. “These lianas also have tendrils that let them grab pieces of stems and leaves and start growing.”

This adaptation is “purely mechanical, architectural,” he said. “It’s better than being slippery and cylindrical.”

The study considered two scales of time: an individual plant’s life, and a longer, evolutionary breadth. Dr. Chery and her colleagues found that in a single plant’s early development, when the liana is leafy, green and small, woody vines already have an unusual tissue formation. The stem is star-shaped rather than circular the vascular bundles are scattered in the lobes of the star-shaped body and absent in the arcs. At later stages, this lobed structure can lead to more unusual growth patterns.

Over evolutionary time, vines of different groups developed various mechanisms to contort their stems. The paper’s authors found that the five different atypical forms found in mature liana stems trace their evolutionary history back to a common disturbance to the young plant’s development: the lobed stem.

“This is exciting because it’s one step away from saying that this leads in perfectly to understanding how lianas do what they do,” Dr. Schnitzer said. While lianas share most characteristics with trees, like producing wood and thriving in similar environmental conditions, the two plant types invest differently in certain parts of their composition. Lianas have more cells related to being flexible, whereas trees prioritize being stiff and tough. Both have cells responsible for stiffness and flexibility in differing ratios.

“They have the same ingredients, but the proportion of those ingredients is distributed differently,” Dr. Chery said.


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Liana

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Liana, also spelled liane, any long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil and climbs or twines around other plants. They are a conspicuous component of tropical forest ecosystems and represent one of the most important structural differences between tropical and temperate forests. Flattened or twisted lianas often become tangled together to form a hanging network of vegetation. Lianas belong to several different plant families and may grow up to 60 cm (about 24 inches) in diameter and 100 metres (about 330 feet) in length. These structural parasites exploit the trunks and limbs of tropical trees for support in order to place their own leaves into well-lit portions of the forest canopy. The presence of large lianas provides a very good indicator of older, more mature stands of forest.

Although humans use different lianas for purposes ranging from a source of fresh drinking water (vines are often hollow and conduct water through the plant) to poisons and drugs (curare comes from a liana), there is a relative lack of information on this very abundant and diverse life form. Knowledge of lianas and their ecology has lagged well behind other plant groups largely because the study of lianas is complicated by erratic growth patterns and taxonomic uncertainties.

Lianas can represent approximately one-quarter of all woody species in tropical forests. One census of lianas in a Panamanian forest revealed 90 species of lianas from 21 plant families. The density of lianas in this study is not extreme, as many seasonal tropical forests have much higher densities. Lianas have been found to affect the growth of over 50 percent of trees with a diameter of more than 10 cm (4 inches). Although tangles of lianas are known to delay forest regrowth in canopy gaps, a large number of animals depend on lianas for food in the form of leaves, sap, nectar, pollen, and fruit.


What is the lifecycle of hanging woody vines? - Biology

A plant's life cycle describes how long a plant lives or how long it takes to grow, flower, and set seed. Plants can be either an annual, perennial, or biennial.

Annual

A plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season. It will grow, flower, set seed, and die.

Examples: Marigolds, tomatoes, and petunias.

Perennial

A plant that lives for 3 or more years. It can grow, flower, and set seed for many years. Underground parts may regrow new stems as in the case of herbaceous plants, or the stems may live for many years like woody plants (trees).

Examples: Daisies, chrysanthemums, and roses.

Biennial

A plant that needs two growing seasons to complete its life cycle. It grows vegetatively (produces leaves) one season. Then it goes dormant or rests over the winter. In the spring, it will begin to grow again and grow flowers, set seed, and die. The seed that is left behind on the ground germinates and the cycle begins again.


Key Terms

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    What is the lifecycle of hanging woody vines? - Biology

    A plant's life cycle describes how long a plant lives or how long it takes to grow, flower, and set seed. Plants can be either an annual, perennial, or biennial.

    Annual

    A plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season. It will grow, flower, set seed, and die.

    Examples: Marigolds, tomatoes, and petunias.

    Perennial

    A plant that lives for 3 or more years. It can grow, flower, and set seed for many years. Underground parts may regrow new stems as in the case of herbaceous plants, or the stems may live for many years like woody plants (trees).

    Examples: Daisies, chrysanthemums, and roses.

    Biennial

    A plant that needs two growing seasons to complete its life cycle. It grows vegetatively (produces leaves) one season. Then it goes dormant or rests over the winter. In the spring, it will begin to grow again and grow flowers, set seed, and die. The seed that is left behind on the ground germinates and the cycle begins again.


    Classification of Phanerogams

    Phanerogams are classified into two groups such as:

    Gymnosperms

    The word gymnosperm is made from two Greek words “GYMNO” which means naked and “SPERMA” which means seed. Gymnosperms are naked seed containing plants. These are called primitive seed plants. The seeds are found exposed to the environment. Cones bear the seeds. These do not possess fruits. These lack flowers. These are woody and perennial trees. In general, they have tap root system. These include evergreen trees such as Cycas, Pinus, Gnetum, etc. These are heterosporous and produce microspores and megaspores. Microspores are found inside microsporangia on microsporophyll while megaspores are found inside megasporangia on megasporophyll. In gymnosperms, the endosperms are either haploid or absent. Since gymnosperms are woody these are economically and ecologically valuable and important.

    Angiosperms

    The word angiosperm is made from two words “ANGION” which means hidden and “SPERMA” which means seed. These are flowering plants. They have seeds enclosed within fruits. Flowers are the most attractive part of any angiospermic plant. It adds to the beauty of these plants. Flowers are the characteristic features of angiosperms. Flowers attract insects and birds and help in pollination. Reproduction is of sexual type. These undergo double fertilization and endosperms are formed. Angiosperms are further divided into dicots and monocots. For example, peas, sunflower, maize, etc. Angiosperms are the most evolved group of the whole Plant Kingdom. Angiosperms provide us with all crop plants that are used as food and fodder plants. These are economically very important of all other plants.


    Watch the video: Two Woody Vines with Boot Boutwell (July 2022).


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