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As I understand it, ions flow down their electrochemical potentials through ion channels during a neuron's action potential. Otherwise, ion pumps work to restore and maintain the resting membrane potential. What is the energy cost of a neuron's action potential? That is, how much work must the ion pumps perform to restore the resting membrane potential after an action potential occurs?
There's a few [1, 2, 3] sources that claim it's on the order of $10^8$ ATPs per action potential. The first paper (which is a review that cites the second paper) also has some equations for converting from ATPs to free energy, although that's going to be very context dependent.
If you can't access the third paper, someone has helpfully entered the relevant figures into the bionumbers site.
COST Action FP1406: PINESTRENGTH
Gibberella circinata is a highly virulent pathogen damaging pines, causing damping-off in nurseries and pitch canker in forests. It was first detected in North America, since when the pathogen has spread into Central and South America, South Africa, Asia and, more recently, Europe. G. circinata is now considered the most important pathogen affecting Pinus seedlings and mature trees in many countries globally asymptomatic seedlings may be planted out, resulting in very serious losses in forests. Nevertheless, there has been little research on G. circinata in Europe to date and little information is available overall on host range in Europe, pathogen spread and disease control. The main aim of this Action is to establish a European-focused network to increase knowledge of the biology, ecology and pathways of spread of G. circinata, to examine the potential for the development of effective and environmentally-friendly prevention and mitigation strategies and to deliver these outcomes to stakeholders and policy makers. To that end, a multidisciplinary approach will be taken, including researchers, forest managers and policy makers from 34 countries focused on the common problem of pitch canker, making PINESTRENGTH highly innovative.
The aim of the PINESTRENGTH Action is to collect and collate the current state-of-art knowledge on pitch pine canker caused by Gibberella circinata, in order to increase understanding of the problem and the pathogen so that plans for the integrated management of pine pitch canker and to reduce the probability of further introductions into currently disease-free countries, can be established in Europe.
This aim is addressed through the following four objectives:
Objective 1: to develop and recommend suitable, practical tools, techniques and methodologies for rapid and sensitive detection and efficient monitoring of G. circinata in plant materials and in pathways of potential spread.
State-of-art of methods will be collated to (i) determine suitable approaches, timing, frequency and methodology for surveys and sampling, (ii) identify and evaluate the best available biological/molecular techniques for G. circinata diagnostics.
Objective 2: to collect and collate published information on the biology and ecology of G. circinata and other pine pests and pathogens with high potential to interact with pitch canker.
Knowledge of the biology and ecology of G. circinata will be collated and information on abiotic and biotic factors influencing disease development synthesized. The implications of other pine pests and pathogens and their potential interactions with G. circinata will be also examined to implement this knowledge into strategies for integrated disease management. Furthermore, this knowledge will serve to delineate the pathways of pitch canker disease spread from nurseries to the field and assess the utility of the current Pest Risk Analysis for G. circinata under present and future climate change scenarios.
Objective 3: to develop effective and environmentally-friendly control strategies for pitch canker.
Host responses to pathogen infection will be examined in order to improve knowledge on and to develop morphological markers for pitch canker-resistant genotypes and provenances. An assessment of current control methods used worldwide and novel methods for management explored, with emphasis on the use of biological control agents in the nursery, and on individual tree and landscape scales. Along with the silvicultural methods, these data will enable sustainable integrated management for pitch canker to be established.
Objective 4: to raise awareness of pine pitch canker and disseminate the outcomes of these activities to stakeholders, policy makers and other interested parties.
The ecological, economic and social impacts of pitch canker will be investigated, detailed and summarized to raise awareness of the importance of this pathogen in forestry for forest managers and policy makers. Combined results from the work will enable future research needs to be assessed, in order to fill knowledge gaps. Finally, dissemination of results will be a priority commitment of the PINESTRENGTH partners.
PINESTRENGTH will tackle this invasive disease problem from a multidisciplinary approach, compiling current knowledge of G. circinata from global sources in order to answer fundamental questions, co-ordinating ongoing research projects, identifying knowledge gaps, acting as a platform to foster new research programmes that deal with these gaps and elaborating guidelines for integrated management of the disease. The primary tasks covered in the PINESTRENGTH Action are:
Task 1: Determining suitable approaches, timing, frequency and methodology for surveys and sampling
Task 2: Identifying and evaluating the best available molecular techniques for G. circinata diagnostics
Task 3: Assessing the potential interactions between other pine pathogens and G. circinata
Task 4: Assessing the potential interactions of other forest pests with G. circinata
Task 5: Synthesizing environmental data on pitch canker epidemiology and spread on a Europewide scale
Task 6: Assessing the pathways of pitch canker disease spread, with emphasis on nurseries to the field
Task 7: Pest Risk Analysis for G. circinata
Task 8: Estimating the economic and social impacts of pitch canker
Task 9: Determining host responses to pathogen infection, acquiring knowledge on pitch canker resistant genotypes and provenances
Task 10: Assessment of current control methods used worldwide and exploring the utilization of novel management methods, with emphasis on application of biological controls at the nursery, individual tree and landscape scale
Task 11: Coordination of the Working groups
Task 12: Identification of future research needs – coping with knowledge gaps
Task 13: Dissemination of results – establishing communication mechanisms to stakeholders and other target audiences
Working Group 1. Diagnosis aimed at harmonizing a common methodology to monitor the presence of G. circinata in Europe, so reference laboratories and mandated diagnostic laboratories will have a tool to carry out rapid and sensitive detection of the pathogen along pathways of dispersal
Working Group 2. Interactions with other forest pests and pathogens aimed at collating information concerning potential synergic effects with other pathogens and pests and the role of the latter as potential vectors of G. circinata
Working Group 3. Pathway of disease spread aimed at shedding light on factors determining epidemiology and spread of pine pitch canker, including environmental conditions that favour outbreaks once established and potential pathways that favour the dispersal towards free-disease regions
Working Group 4. Pest Risk Analyses aimed at assessing the current and potential European risk for G. circinata based on future climate change scenarios. Furthermore, this pest risk assessment will result in estimations of economic and social impacts of Pitch Canker
Working Group 5. Management of pine pitch canker in forests and nurseries aimed at synthesizing information concerning host resistance and utilization of biological control methods as alternatives to chemical treatments
Working Group 6. Coordination, identifying research gaps and dissemination aimed at coordinating WGs 1-5 and compile their outcomes, identify knowledge gaps and acting as a platform for prioritising research areas and formulate new projects. Furthermore, it is aimed at providing timely dissemination of information from PINESTRENGTH, with emphasis on stakeholders and other target audiences beyond COST participants
The energy cost of action potential propagation in dopamine neurons: clues to susceptibility in Parkinson's disease.
Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are uniquely sensitive to degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its models. Although a variety of molecular characteristics have been proposed to underlie this sensitivity, one possible contributory factor is their massive, unmyelinated axonal arbor that is orders of magnitude larger than other neuronal types. We suggest that this puts them under such a high energy demand that any stressor that perturbs energy production leads to energy demand exceeding supply and subsequent cell death. One prediction of this hypothesis is that those dopamine neurons that are selectively vulnerable in PD will have a higher energy cost than those that are less vulnerable. We show here, through the use of a biology-based computational model of the axons of individual dopamine neurons, that the energy cost of axon potential propagation and recovery of the membrane potential increases with the size and complexity of the axonal arbor according to a power law. Thus SNc dopamine neurons, particularly in humans, whose axons we estimate to give rise to more than 1 million synapses and have a total length exceeding 4 m, are at a distinct disadvantage with respect to energy balance which may be a factor in their selective vulnerability in PD.
Energy Cost of Action Potential Generation and Propagation in Thalamocortical Relay Neurons During Deep Brain Stimulation
Thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons generate antidromic and orthodromic action potentials (APs) during thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). To maintain signaling, each AP requires Na + /K + pump to expend adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to restore Na + and K + gradients. Our aim was to estimate the energy demand associated with AP generation and propagation within TC relay cells during DBS. We used a morphology-based computational model to simulate the APs at different locations. We determined AP energy cost by calculating the amount of ATP required to reverse Na + influx during the spike and measured metabolic efficiency by using Na + /K + charge overlap. The ATP cost for AP generation exhibited location dependence, which was determined by spike shape, spatial morphology, and heterogeneously distributed currents. The APs in the axonal initial segment (AIS) were energetically efficient, but backpropagation to the soma and forward propagation to the axon were inefficient. Due to large surface area, the soma and AIS dominated the overall ATP usage. The AP cost also depended on membrane potential, which controlled T-type Ca 2+ conductance and degree of availability of Na + and K + channels. The excitatory/inhibitory synaptic inputs affected spike cost by increasing/reducing the excitability of local cells. There was a tradeoff between AP cost and firing rate at high firing frequencies. We explained a fundamental link between biophysics of ionic currents, spatial morphology of neural segments, and ATP cost per AP. The predictions should be considered when understanding the functional magnetic resonance imaging data of thalamic DBS.
The cost of an action potential
Neuronal modules, or 'cell-assemblies', comprising millions of mutually interconnected cells have been postulated to form the basis of many functions of the brain, such as mood, sleep, hunger, vigilance, and more. Depending on the extent of the module, neurocommunication in cell-assemblies might exceed metabolic resources. A medium-size (10000 neurons) module would require at least 10 J per l of brain, based on a calculated cost of an isolated action potential (AP) of 10(11)-10(12) molecules of ATP per cm(2) of cell membrane, with an absolute minimum of 10(6) ATP at a node of Ranvier. The figure matches the cost of depolarizing the unmyelinated axon of the large monopolar cell in the blowfly retina. A circuit model of the cell membrane, based on abrupt changes of Na(+) and K(+) conductances, is used to emulate the AP and to assess the resulting ionic unbalance. The cost of an AP is equated to the metabolic energy necessary to fuel ATP-based pumps that restore intracellular K(+). The high metabolic demand of a cell-assembly suggests that less expensive means of neurocommunication may be involved, such as non-synaptic diffusion neurotransmission (NDN), which would comply with a proposed law of conservation of space and energy in the brain.
Hodgkin correctly ascertained that because the kinetics of the voltage-activated sodium and potassium ion channels are voltage dependent, charged components of the channels interact with electric fields. In the HH and HHSFL models, the gating particles carry this charge. The movements of the charges associated with a channel produce a small transient capacitance.
This current, known as the “gating” current, must be included on the right-hand side of Eq. 11 because it contributes to the total current determining the behavior of Vm. (The gating current can have terms proportional to dVm/dt, and therefore it can act like a capacitance.) The effective capacitance is then the sum of the intrinsic capacitance and the time-varying gating capacitance
Following Adrian (1975) and Sangrey et al. (2004), we set the simulation values of C0 to 0.88 μF/cm 2 and Cg max to 0.13 μF/cm 2 , both of which are within the experimental limits. We also assumed that the gating capacitance is linearly proportional to the number of closed sodium channels
If Cg is interpreted as a true time-dependent capacitance, then the gating current also has a current component equal to dCg/dt × Vm, which should be added to the right-hand side of Eq. 11. We examined the effects of including this additional gating current component, and it is much smaller in magnitude than the Cg × dVm/dt component. In terms of its effects on the ionic current fluxes, the data are changed by no more than about 5%. This change is to the overall normalization of the energy curve its shape and the location of the minimum are unaltered. This effect is also considerably smaller than the effects of other experimental uncertainties on the ionic fluxes such as the overall gating capacitance (see results ). Moreover, the gating capacitance is a phenomenological effect rather than a true additional capacitance and its exact behavior as a function of time is not well measured, which mitigates against using an overly detailed model of Cg(t) in our simulations. Accordingly, the results reported here do not include the dCg/dt × Vm component of the gating current.
The membrane capacitance per unit axial length is given by
An alternate action potential, using Boltzmann kinetics at 5–8°C and modeling a space-clamped action potential (Clay 2005), fails to reproduce the traveling action potential at the relevant temperatures (unpublished observations).
Introduction of the Special Issue on SMARTCATs COST Action
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This article is part of the SMARTCATs COST Action special issue.
The fulfillment of societal energy needs is currently faced with several constrains that are swiftly and continuously changing the possible scenarios of the near future energy market. If global warming is accelerating and, in turn, hasten the request of renewable, green energy systems, on the other hand, geo-political equilibria keep the grid strictly anchored to well-established, traditional energy production systems. This hinders the drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is needed to meet the strict goals fixed over the years. Energy carriers coupled with advanced combustion technologies are synergistic twin strategies that can satisfy the two apparently antithetic requirements of geo-political and environmental sustainability and security. Indeed, energy carriers represent a wide category of molecules, including both conventional and bio-derived fuels as well as molecules used to store both conventional and renewable source energy surplus as in power to fuel options. At the same time, to efficiently exploit the large class of locally available energy carriers, fuel-flexible advanced combustion technologies are strongly needed.
From this standpoint, a smart energy carrier (SEC) identifies with molecules (derived from standard, alternative, or unconventional sources), locally produced or made available, that can be safely and cleanly transformed into energy by means of the best available combustion technologies.
SMARTCATs COST Action (www.smartcats.eu) is a collaborative network of research and academic institutions as well as companies from 30 countries, set up within the Cooperation in Science and Technology European framework (www.cost.eu) under the umbrella of the Horizon 2020 Programme. SMARTCATs is focused on the investigation on chemistry and technologies of SECs: the chemistry and kinetics of oxidation/pyrolysis of energy carriers, the potential formation of new noxious species and the tools needed for process study, monitoring, and control, and the technologies needed for SEC practical use are the key topics driving collaborations and share of facilities, tools, and people actively working in the field.
This special issue includes a selection of papers, from fundamental to applied research, discussing results presented at the third SMARTCATs general meeting held in Prague at J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences. The meeting was organized by Prof. Zdeněk Zelinger of the J. Heyrovský Institute with the collaboration of Dr. Jiří Vávra from the Czech Technical University in Prague and Dr. Václav Nevrlý from the VŠB-Technical University.
We thank the Energy & Fuels Editor-in-Chief for giving SMARTCATs participants this opportunity and for taking care of the reviewing process of submitted papers. The papers accepted for publication on this special issue were selected following the traditional high standard reviewing process of the journal.
Views expressed in this editorial are those of the authors and not necessarily the views of the ACS.
In the 1960s, European countries felt the need to begin framing science policies in order to bridge the gap in science and technology between Europe and the USA.
The Ministerial Conference of 22 and 23 November 1971 is generally presented as the official entry into force of COST and at which the first intergovernmental agreements were signed.
The COST governing board, the Committee of Senior Officials, approved the mission that will drive COST throughout the end of Horizon 2020:
“COST provides networking opportunities for researchers and innovators in order to strengthen Europe’s capacity to address scientific, technological and societal challenges.” 
The organisation is currently engaging about 45,000 researchers and innovators. In all, nearly half a million researchers have participated in COST over the years.
The 38 COST Members are: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Republic of Moldova, Montenegro, The Netherlands, The Republic of North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom.
These countries govern COST via their representatives in the COST Committee of Senior Officials (CSO) – the General Assembly of the COST Association.
Israel is a Cooperating Member and South Africa a Partner Member.
COST Near Neighbour Countries include Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Jordan, Kosovo*, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine**, Russia, Syria, Tunisia, and Ukraine. Once their participation is approved, researchers from Near Neighbour Countries’ institutions can participate in the COST Action on the same basis as the COST Members that have signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) – with the exception of the right to vote in the Management Committees or Working Groups of the Action.
International Partner Countries are non-COST Members not being a Near-Neighbour Country i.e. any country (worldwide) that is not included in the previous lists. Once their participation is approved, researchers from International Partner Countries can participate at the Management Committee meetings as Observers, with no voting rights. Researchers connected to institutions from International Partner Countries whose participation in a COST Action has been approved are not eligible for reimbursement.
Since its inception, COST has operated according to one main instrument, the COST Action.
A COST Action is a network open to researchers and innovators, collaborating in all fields of science and technology of common interest to at least seven COST Members/Cooperating Members. A huge variety of topics can be covered in COST Actions, including established research areas like history, biology, ecology, astronomy, criminal justice, but also newly emerging areas like systems biology, renewable energy, sustainable architecture or behavioural economics. Actions can adapt as science advances.
Funding COST Actions Edit
COST provides international funding for networking, enabling researchers to set up their interdisciplinary research networks in Europe and beyond. Since 1971, COST has been receiving EU funding under the various research and innovation framework programmes, such as Horizon 2020.
COST provides funding for a period of four years which is used for organising meetings, workshops, conferences, training schools, short-term scientific missions as well as communication and dissemination activities. This way it promotes global networking of national-funded research.
The average COST Action support is EUR 130,000 per annum (dependent on budget availability) for participation by typically 25 COST Members. The sum covers travel and meeting support.
The COST Association, an international not-for-profit association under Belgian law, is located in Brussels and carries out all activities related to the Open Call. It integrates governance, management, and implementation functions into a single structure.
The decision-making body of the COST Association is the general assembly of Members, the Committee of Senior Officials (CSO). The CSO is chaired by the President of the COST Association, Prof. Paulo Ferrão.
Another legal body is the Executive Board (EB) which prepares all decisions to be taken by the general assembly and oversees the activities of the COST administration. It is headed by the COST Director, currently Dr Ronald de Bruin. 
What is fusion power?
Fusion is the process that powers the stars. It occurs when atomic nuclei ‘fuse’ together to form a heavier nucleus. In contrast, the fission reactions that currently produce the world’s nuclear energy work by splitting atoms. Temperatures in excess of 150 million degrees Celsius – 10 times hotter than the centre of the sun – are required for fusion to occur on Earth. Unsurprisingly, achieving and controlling these enormous temperatures is a substantial technological challenge. This usually requires using incredibly powerful magnets to contain a hot plasma, preventing it from touching and melting the sides of vessels. Fusion research reactors have achieved temperatures in excess of 300 million degrees Celsius.
Fusion science indicates that fusion energy will require small amounts of fuel, produce very little nuclear waste, and its reactions can be shut down swiftly. It is hoped that fusion can produce enormous amounts of energy from relatively small machines. These features, coupled with high-density energy output, will make them ideal for powering mega-cities.
What is Energy Audit
Energy today has become a key factor in deciding the product cost at micro level as well as in dictating the inflation and the debt burden at the macro level. Energy cost is a significant factor in economic activity at par with factors of production like capital, land and labor. The imperatives of an energy shortage situation calls for energy conservation measure, which essentially mean using less energy for the same level of activity. Energy Audit attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use and serves to identify all the energy streams in the systems and quantifies energy usage&rsquos according to its discrete function. Energy Audit helps in energy cost optimization, pollution control, safety aspects and suggests the methods to improve the operating & maintenance practices of the system. It is instrumental in coping with the situation of variation in energy cost availability, reliability of energy supply, decision on appropriate energy mix, decision on using improved energy conservation equipment&rsquos. instrumentation&rsquos and technology
Objectives of Energy Audit
The Energy Audit provides the vital information base for overall energy conservation program covering essentially energy utilization analysis and evaluation of energy conservation measures. It aims at:
- Identifying the quality and cost of various energy inputs.
- Assessing present pattern of energy consumption in different cost centers of operations.
- Relating energy inputs and production output.
- Identifying potential areas of thermal and electrical energy economy.
- Highlighting wastage&rsquos in major areas.
- Fixing of energy saving potential targets for individual cost centers.
- Implementation of measures for energy conservation & realization of savings.
Benefits of Energy Audit from PCRA:
- Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA), under the aegis of MOP&NG, since its inception in the year 1978, has been actively engaged in formulating strategies to promote energy efficiency and conservation of petroleum products for sustainable development, energy security and environment protection.
- PCRA has been the nodal agency in the country for many energy efficiency programmes across far and wide corner of the country penetrating to almost every sector of energy consumers viz. Industrial, Transport, Domestic and Agriculture etc.
- PCRA has a qualified and well experienced pool of manpower drawn from oil sector PSUs and to undertake such jobs.
- During the last 25 years, PCRA conducted more than 12,000 energy audits in small, medium and large industries.
Board guidelines indicating the methodology for such an energy audit is given below. Possible stages for interaction/conference are also indicated.
- Collections of data on operational parameters, energy consumption both normal and electrical, coal and power quality etc., through a questionnaire.
- Study the existing plant capacities and their performance to assess plant operations.
- Study of the specific energy consumption (both thermal and electrical) department-wise and plant as a whole.
- Study of the power sources, distribution system and drive controls, load factor and efficiency of large motors (above 10 kW), process automations, plant illuminations etc.
- Collection of requisite data and analysis and identification of specific areas with potential for conservation of thermal and electrical energy.
- Field measurements of operational parameters and carrying out heat and mass balance.
- Study of limitations, if any, in the optimal use of thermal and electrical energy.
- Formulation of specific recommendations along with broad system concept for conservation of thermal and electrical energy.
- Preparation of capital cost estimates and establishing techno-economic feasibility for recommended measures.
- No investment and/or marginal investment by doing system improvements and optimization of operations.
- Major investment due to incorporation of modern energy intensive equipment and upgradation of existing equipment.
- Formulating tentative time schedule for implementation of the recommendation.
- Undertaking broad cost benefit analysis in terms of savings in energy consumption per unit of production and pay-back period.
Follow-up with the industry on periodic basis to ascertain the level of implementation of recommendation and assist, if require, in implementation of the measures to achieve energy user efficiency.
Assistance required from Client Side:
- Nomination of one engineer as coordinator from your side and to provide the relevant data / record about equipment etc. (maximum available), during course of the Energy Audit. Any other requirement would be conveyed at site, as & when required.
- As and when required, our team of energy auditors will make visits in building / plant therefore arrangement of entry pass and gate pass for instruments carried by our team.
The Preliminary Energy Audit focuses on the major energy suppliers and demands usually accounting for approximately 70% of total energy. It is essentially a preliminary data gathering and analysis effort. It uses only available data and is completed with limited diagnostic instruments. The PEA is conducted in a very short time frame i.e. 1-3 days during which the energy auditor relies on his experience together with all the relevant written, oral visual information that can lead to a quick diagnosis of the plant energy situation. The PEA focuses on the identification of obvious sources of energy wastage's. The typical out put of a PEA is a set of recommendations and immediate low cost action that can be taken up by the department head.
Detailed Energy Audit
The detailed audit goes beyond quantitative estimates of costs and savings. It includes engineering recommendations and well-defined project, giving due priorities. Approximately 95% of all energy is accounted for during the detailed audit. The detailed energy audit is conducted after the preliminary energy audit. Sophisticated instrumentation including flow meter, flue gas analyzer and scanner are use of compute energy efficiency.
Scope of work for detailed Energy Audit
- Review of Electricity Bills, Contract Demand and Power Factor: For the last one year, in which possibility will be explored for further reduction of contract demand and improvement of power factor
- Electrical System Network : Which would include detailed study of all the Transformer operations of various Ratings / Capacities, their operational pattern, Loading, No Load Losses, Power Factor Measurement on the Main Power Distribution Boards and scope for improvement if any. The study would also cover possible improvements in energy metering systems for better control and monitoring.
- Study of Motors and Pumps Loading : Study of motors (above 10 kW) in terms of measurement of voltage (V), Current (I), Power (kW) and power factor and thereby suggesting measures for energy saving like reduction in size of motors or installation of energy saving device in the existing motors. Study of Pumps and their flow, thereby suggesting measures for energy saving like reduction in size of Motors and Pumps or installation of energy saving device in the existing motors / optimization of pumps.
- Study of Air conditioning plant : w.r.t measurement of Specific Energy consumption i.e kW/TR of refrigeration, study of Refrigerant Compressors, Chilling Units, etc. Further, various measures would be suggested to improve its performance.
- Cooling Tower: This would include detailed study of the operational performance of the cooling towers through measurements of temperature differential, air/water flow rate, to enable evaluate specific performance parameters like approach, effectiveness etc.
- Performance Evaluation of Boilers: This includes detailed study of boiler efficiency, Thermal insulation survey and flue gas analysis./li>
- Performance Evaluation of Turbines: This includes detailed study of Turbine efficiency, Waste heat recovery.
- Performance Evaluation of Air Compressor: This includes detailed study of Air compressor system for finding its performance and specific energy consumption
- Evaluation of Condenser performance: This includes detailed study of condenser performance and opportunities for waste heat recovery/li>
- Performance Evaluation of Burners / Furnace : This includes detailed study on performance of Furnace / Burner, thermal insulation survey for finding its efficiency
- Windows / Split Air Conditioners: Performance shall be evaluated as regards, their input power vis-a-vis TR capacity and performance will be compared to improve to the best in the category
- Illumination: Study of the illumination system, LUX level in various areas, area lighting etc. and suggest measures for improvements and energy conservation opportunity wherever feasible./li>
- DG Set: Study the operations of DG sets to evaluate their average cost of Power Generation, Specific Energy Generation and subsequently identify areas wherein energy savings could be achieved after analysing the operational practices etc. of the DG sets.
The entire recommendations would be backed up with techno-economic calculations including the estimated investments required for implementation of the suggested measures and simple payback period. Measurement would be made using appropriate instrumentation support for time lapse and continuous recording of the operational parameters.
Completion Period: We usually start the field data collection at site with in one and half months time, from the date of receipt of work order and the draft energy audit report is submitted thereafter in 1 month time. Finalization of energy audit report is normally completed within 3 months. (After completion of the audit study, the findings and recommendations are discussed with the technical head and the final report with recommendations is submitted.
The new COST Action EUVEN provides a flexible platform for scientists to overcome the lack of coordination, tools, and resources, through the development of a fully synergistic network. To guarantee the coverage of the diverse topics of interest in EUVEN and build an effective network across Europe and beyond, it is fundamental to engage the broadest participation possible from all COST participating countries. Near-neighbor and international partner countries can also request to join EUVEN and participate in networking activities.
We believe that building an effective network that is able to bridge different scientific disciplines and sectors constitutes a fundamental prerequisite to fully develop the extraordinarily transformative potential of venom research.